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Introduction Popular interest in castle ruins began with the age of romanticism, and has remained an intriguing subject throughout history. Terminology History Construction Examples Resources Locations in Arizona Summary Note: Due to time limitations, please keep questions to a minimum during the presentation.
Definition Castle - (Latin - castellum,”small fortified place”) A fortified residence of a lord or monarch. Derived from the walled cities of ancient Rome and the fortified palaces of Byzantium, the castle became virtually ubiquitous in western Europe during the wars of the late Middle Ages.
Castle Terms Bailey or Ward: courtyard within the walls of the castle. Concentric: having two sets of walls, one inside the other Crenel: notched battlement made up of alternating openings in a square, saw-teeth pattern. Donjon: the inner stronghold (keep) of a castle. Drum Tower: a round tower built into a wall Merlon: part of a battlement, the square "saw tooth" between crenels Moat (Motte): The name moat, properly meaning, bank or mound, was transferred to the ditch surrounding a castle. The trench around the rampart of a castle or other fortified place was often filled with water. Palisade: a sturdy wooden fence built to enclose a site until a permanent stone wall could be constructed Sapping: undermining, as of a castle wall Turret: a small tower rising above and resting on one of the main towers, usually used as a look out point Wall Walk: the area along the tops of the walls from which soldiers could defend the castle
History Time Frame 6th Century - 10th Century (medieval) 11th Century – 15th Century (post-medieval) Construction Influences Residential Castles Status Symbol Military Castles Castle walls were increasingly thicker and stronger in response to the development of artillery. The main function of all castles was defense. Types Simple Wooden Structures (Ring Works) Set on mounds of dirt Surrounded by a ditch Stone Walls (Palisades) Better Protection Motte (Moat) – earth mound Bailey – court yard
History……. Keeps (Donjon) – 40 to 50 feet high Norman Influence Located within the Bailey Moats with Drawbridges Square vs. Round Final Defensive Position End of Castles Around 1500 AD (Gothic Period) Invention of Gunpowder Imposing Residence (Churches)
Construction Considerations Castle License - Under Norman rule, noble men could not build castles without the monarch's permission. Manpower (2000 tradesmen) Weather Time 10 Feet of Elevation Per Year 5 – 45 years Cost (“Tens of Thousands of Pounds”) Material Manpower $170.00 per sq. ft. in today's market + overhead Built On Cliffs or a Bend In a River Style Ring-work - enclosure surrounded by a ditch with an earth rampart inside it, and a wooden fence around the rampart Motte-and-Bailey – mounds of dirt – wooden tower
Construction …… Style (cont.) Stone Castles – Began in 1067 Stone Enclosure Castles – Began in 1088 Concentric Castles – enclosure with additional curtain wall Tower Houses – similar to a rectangular Keep Fortified Manors – were not true castles Pele Towers – poor mans castle
Gothic Architecture originated in northern France in the twelfth century. Located in Sussex, England, Bodiam marks the beginning of a great departure from the Middle Ages. Gothic architecture became prevalent in Western Europe around 1400. The Church was the most prolific Gothic builder of the Middle Ages. Bodiam Castle
l5th century characteristic of English Gothic, York Minster stretches out over the city rooftops, a great horizontal structure almost 500 feet long. The cathedral massing is varied, the transepts project strongly, and there is a second set of transepts near the east end. YORK MINSTER
Construction Tradesmen Master Mason - Supervisor Hewers – Quarried the stone Freemasons – Cut stone and carved decorative moldings Rough-masons and Layers - built the walls Carpenters, Well-diggers, metal-smiths, quarrymen, cooks Materials (granite weights ~ 170 lbs/cf) Stone – Chalk, Limestone, granite, and Flint Mortar – Water, Sand, Lime, Oxblood, Cockleshells, Chalk Wood Lead ( plumbing & roofing), Brass, Pewter, Gold, Iron Brick – was not used much. At 1476 feet up, Castell Dinas is the highest castle site in Britain. It is located in Wales.
Resources Books (Amazon.com) Castles and Fortresses by Robin S. Oggins Castles : Their Construction and History by Sidney Toy Web http://www.castlesontheweb.com/ http://www.castles-of-britain.com/castle6.htm http://www.reutte.com/ludwig/index.html http://www.columbia.edu/~eer1/branner.html http://homepage.mac.com/mfeinberg/castles/ http://dupontcastle.com/castles/ http://www.castles.org/ http://www.castles.org/books/castles/castle_books.htm
Locations In Arizona COPENHAVER CASTLE - Phoenix TOVREA CASTLE - Phoenix SIBLEY CASTLE - Copper Creek MYSTERY CASTLE - Phoenix BRADY CASTLE - Tucson LAMANCHA CASTLE -Lake Havasu City UNKNOWN CASTLE - Chandler PRESCOTT CASTLE - Prescott
Summary Special thanks to Prof. Hattenhauer Nations rise and fall, but castles are forever in our hearts and our dreams. Good luck with your castle quest.