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молодіжні субкультури

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THE PARALLELS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN IDIOMS The presentation was made by Grach Veronika

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INTRODUCTION The language is a basic element of culture, intellectual wealth of people. It unites people better than any leader , makes people understand that they are the nation. And to my mind true wealth are idioms. They can show the historical and the literary heritage of people. However, every phrase carries a little story while each expression is able to teach something new. To begin with, the goal of this research is to consider and to analyse the phenomenon of the similarity between Ukrainian and English speaking cultures. When I study English I often meet idioms that can be translated only into the Ukrainian language. It was the reason that has encouraged me to choose a theme of the parallels between the Ukrainian and English idioms.

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MEANING OF IDIOMS From ancient times the English language has had a reputation as “ idiomatic language”, it is literary overloaded with stable expressions , sayings, proverbs and aphorisms. They decorate spoken English and make it alive. Nowadays the pace of our lives is getting rapider so we can not fully estimate their features. Thus, it is impossible to understand idioms using only a literal translation.

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CLASSICATION Idioms can be divided into authentic and borrowed expressions. The second classification is about the time of occurrence – traditional and modern. For the audience they are divided into “ winged expressions” and slangs. And I suggest to use the three most common and largest – historical, literature and folklore.

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AUTHENTIC EXPRESSIONS There are a massive category of phraseologisms that have appeared during the whole period of cultural growth of the nation. Authentic statements are divided into two subgroups, the original and the crossover idioms.

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ORIGINAL IDIOMS For example,“ Queen Ann is dead“ is used when a person wants to inform you of the well-known or old news. The Ukrainian version is «Відкрив Америку!». «Old wives` tales» is comment to stories about mystical cases or scary stories. The Ukrainian version is « бабусині казки». «Indian summer» means that the summer is ended, but the street is still bathed in the warm sunshine and the birds are not going to fly somewhere. It is in Ukraine « бабине літо». « Between the devil and deep blue sea» - the most common way to say « between two fires». The Ukrainian version is « між молотом та ковадлом».

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CROSSOVER OR HOMONYMOUS IDIOMS A crossover idioms are very easy to confuse with a borrowed one. The best example of crossover expressions is « I am fed up». The Ukrainian version is « Я ситий цим по горло ». « For all the tea in China» is response to the insolent offer or simply a heavy request. . The Ukrainian version is « ні за які пряники».

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BORROWED EXPRESSIONS A good example of this idioms is « black horse », expression is a characteristic of a person that could surprised us. The second example is « No luck in the game – lucky in love» and « hard nut to crack» is a favorite expressions of police.

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SLANG The first to use the slang were sailors and they transformed them in there own way.

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EXAMPLES OF AMERICAN SLANG «ACE»is the appeal to a friend. The Ukrainian version is « братан». « Jee!» is «О, мій Бог!» in Ukrainian. « At sea !» is «готовий крізь землю провалитися» Ukrainian equivalent. « Ball of fire (BOF)» means too energetic person. Ukrainian version is « живчик». «Bananas oil» is «чухня» in Ukrainian. «Сhicken feed» is «кіт наплакав» in Ukrainian.

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EXAMPLES OF ENGLISH SLANG « Gaga» is «чухня» in Ukrainian . « On pins and needles» - Ukrainian idiom is translated as « pins and needles», but the British uses only the first part of the «на голках». « Bublin brook» is «базікало» in Ukrainian . « Butter up» is «підлизуватись» in Ukrainian.

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FOLK IDIOMS It is the oldest group of idioms. « The grass is always greener on the other side on the fence» - British proverb. Favorite Ukrainian saying sounds - «Добре там, де нас нема». « Like 2 peas in a pod» talks about people alike as twins. Ukrainian similar as «дві краплі води». « The crack of down» is «з першими півнями» in Ukraine.

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LITERARY EXPRESSIONS For example, « Carrot and stick» is «батіг та пряники» in Ukraine. « Blood is thicker than water» is «кров- не водиця» in Ukraine. « The early bird catches the warm» - figurative phrase of the peasant. Ukrainians says «Хто рано встає, тому Бог дає ». « If there not clouds we would enjoy the sun» is «не було щастя та нещастя допомогло» in Ukraine.

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HISTORICAL EXPRESSIONS Despite the fact that most idioms seem very strange, they have their origin story. For example, « it rains cats and dogs» means very heavy rain”.Ukrainian say «ллэ як з відра». «To face the musik» is «розсьорбувати кашу» in Ukraine. «To be in the black» is «бути в плюсі» in Ukraine. «To be in the red» is «бути в скруті» in Ukraine.

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TRADIRIONAL EXPRESSIONS A good example of this category is favorite British saying « pigs might fly». The Ukrainian version is «коли свині полетять» or «коли рак на горі свисне». «Sleep on it» is «ранок вечора мудріший» in Ukraine.

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MODERN EXPRESSIONS Examples of idioms are « Butterflies in the stomach» and «not to be all it`s cracked up to date». The Ukrainian version is «не такий страшний чорт, як його малюють» or «не такий райдужний, як його разписували».

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СONCLUSION Idioms is an important part of the English language. Starting, this work I set a goal to consider and analyse the phenomenon of affinity Ukrainian and English speaking cultures in idiomatic terms. At the end of the work provided table of idioms used in the work. I hope that my work was able to bring the main idea of my study.

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