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One of the main tasks of our society that face the modern education system is creating a culture of personality. The urgency of this problem for a review of life and artistic and aesthetic values. Formation of Culture of the younger generation is not possible without recourse to public art treasures accumulated during its existence. Thus, it is obviously need to examine the foundations of art history. To most fully understand the art of a certain age should you target in terms of art. Know and understand the essence of each of the arts. Just in case possession categorial-conceptual system one can more fully understand the aesthetic value of art.
ARCHITECTURE; FINE ARTS; GRAPHICS; PAINTINGS; SCULPTURE; LITERATURE; Musical; Choreography; Theatre Arts; Photography.
Architecture (Greek "architecton" - "master builder") - a monumental art, which aims to create buildings and necessary for human life and activities, responding utilitarian and spiritual needs of people. Architectural forms depends on the geographic and climatic conditions, the nature of the landscape, the intensity of sunlight, seismic safety, etc. Architecture more closely than other art associated with the development of productive forces, the development of technology. Architecture able to integrate with the monumental painting, sculpture, decorative and other kinds of art. The basis of architectural composition - volume-spatial structure, the organic relationship of elements of a building or group of buildings. The scale of buildings in many respects determines the character of the image, its monumentality and intimacy. Architecture does not play directly to reality, it is not graphic and expressive character.
Graphics (in Greek - "write paint") - is primarily photography and artistic printed works (engravings, lithographs). It is based on the possibilities of creating expressive art form by using different colored lines, strokes and stains that are applied to the surface sheet. Graphics preceded the painting. First, he learned to memorize shape and form of plastic items, then identify and reproduce their colors and shades. Mastering color was a historical process: not all colors were drawn immediately.
Painting - art of the plane, the specificity of which is represented by ink deposited on the surface image of the real world, transformed the creative imagination of the artist. Painting is divided into: - Monumental - Stankov - Portrait - Landscape - Still life - Historical genre - Genre - Icon -Animalism In the XX century. nature of art is influenced by means of technical progress (occurrence photo and video equipment), which leads to the emergence of new forms of art - Multimedia Art.
Sculpture - space - art, people-vaivayuschee world in plastic images. The main materials used in sculpture are stone, bronze, marble, wood. At the present stage of social development, technological progress has expanded the number of materials used for making sculpture: steel, plastic, concrete and others. There are two main types of sculpture: volume three-dimensional (circular) and relief: - High Relief - high relief - Relief - low relief - Kontrrelyefiv - Mortise relief. By definition, is a monumental sculpture, decorative, easel. Monumental - used for decoration of streets and squares of the city, marking the historically important places, events, etc. to monumental sculpture are: - Monuments - Monument - Memorials. Easel - designed for inspection at close range and is designed for interior decoration. Decorative - used to decorate household (small plastic items).
Decorative arts - the kind of creative work to create household items designed to meet the utilitarian and artistic and aesthetic needs of people. In arts and crafts products concern, carried out with different materials and using different technologies. The material for the subject can serve DPI metal, wood, clay, stone, bone. Quite a variety of technical and artistic techniques manufacturing products: carving, embroidery, painting, engraving, etc. The main feature of the subject STI - decorative, which is the imagery and desire to decorate, to make better, more attractive. Decorative and Applied Arts has a national character. As happens with customs, habits, beliefs of a particular ethnic group close to his way of life. An important component of decorative - applied art is folk art crafts - a form of art work based on the collective creativity, developing local cultural tradition centered on the sale of industrial products. Basic Russian folk handicrafts are: - Woodcarving - Painting on wood - Decorating the elm - Artistic Processing stone - Carving of bone - Miniature painting on papier-mache - Koguryo - Popular Ceramics - Kruzhevopletenyya - Painting on cloth - Embroidery
Literature - art in which the material media imagery is the word. The scope of literature are the natural and social phenomena, different social cataclysms, spiritual life personality, her feelings. In its various genres of literature covering the material or through dramatic play activities, or through an epic story of the events or lyrical samorozkryttya inward man. Literature is divided into: - Art - Training - Historical - Science - Help The main genres of literature are: - Lyric - Drama - Epic - Epic - Short story - Story - Roman - Ballad - Poem Specificity is the phenomenon of historical literature, all elements and components of literature and the literary process, all features of literature are in constant change. Literature - live, mobile-ideological structure, sensitive to changes in life. The predecessor of literature is an oral folk tradition.
Music - (from the Greek. Musike - letters. - Art music), art form, in which a tool of artistic images serve in some way organized musical sounds. Basic elements of music and means of expression - mood, rhythm, meter, tempo, loud dynamics, timbre, melody, harmony, polyphony, instrumentation. Music recorded in musical notation and sold in progress. Accepted music division of secular and spiritual. The main branch of sacred music - a cult. From the European cult music (often called a church) is associated the development of European music theory musical sheet, musical pedagogy. By means of the executive is divided into vocal music (singing), instrumental and vocal and instrumental. Music is often combined with choreography, theater arts and film. There unanimous music (monody) and bahatoholosni (homofoniyi, poly). Music divided: - The genera and species - Theatre (opera, etc.), symphonic, chamber, etc.; - At the genres - songs, choral, dance, march, symphony, suite, sonata, etc. Musical work inherent in certain relatively stable typical structure. Music used as a means of implementation and the reality of human feelings, sound images. Music in the sound image expresses generalized essential life processes. Emotional experiences and dyed sense idea that the sounds are expressed through a special kind, which are based on the intonation of human speech - such a musical nature of the image.
Choreography (gr. Choreia - dance + grapho - write) - an art form, whose movements and posture are the human body, poetically intelligent, organized in time and space, art system components. Interacts with dance music, with her musical and choreographic form the image. In this alliance, each component depends on another: dance music dictates its own laws and simultaneously feels the impact of the dance. In some cases the dance can be performed without music - accompanied by strikes, percussion heels, etc. Sources of dance are: imitation of labor processes, ritual celebrations and ceremonies, side plastic which has a regulation and semantics; dance spontaneously expressed in the movements in the movements of the culmination of an emotional person. Dance has always, at all times, been associated with the life of people. Poet every dance corresponds to the nature, spirit of the people from whom it originated.
Theatre - art, art mastering the world through dramatic action that is creative team. Base theater - drama. Synthetical Performing Arts defines its collective nature: the spectacle combined creative efforts of the playwright, director, artist, composer, choreographer and actor. Theatrical productions are divided by genre: - Drama; - Tragedy; - Comedy; - Musical etc. The dramatic art is rooted in deep antiquity. His most important elements already existed in the ancient rites in totem dances in copying povadok animals, etc.
Photo (gr. Phos (photos) light + grafo write) - art that plays on the plane, with lines and shadows, the most perfect manner and without the possibility of errors, contour and shape of the transferred her subject. Photography happened on the border of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as a result of interaction between artistic thought and photographic progress of science and technology. His appearance was historically prepared the development of painting, which focused on the exact mirror image of the world visible and used to achieve this discovery geometrical optics (perspective) and optical devices (camera - obscura). Photo Art gives a clear image and credibility in the static image zapechatlyayutsya essential point of reality.
Cinema - the art of playing on the screen shown in the film motion pictures that create the impression of a living reality. Movie invention XX century. His appearance is defined scientific and technological developments in the field of optics, electronics and camera, chemistry, etc. Movie passes dynamics of the era, working sometimes as a means of expression, film is able to allocate different kinds of events in their internal logic. Cinema is the art of synthetic organic it included items such as literature (the script, songs), painting (animation, the scenery in the feature film), theatrical art (game actors), music that serves as a means of supplementing visual images. Movies can be divided into scientific-documentary and fiction. Defined as film genres: - Drama - Tragedy - Science fiction, - Comedy - Historical etc.
Culture plays a special role in improving the personality in shaping his individual world view, because it accumulated all the emotional and moral evaluation and experience of humankind. The problem of artistic and aesthetic education in shaping the values of the younger generation has become an object of attention of sociologists, philosophers, theorists of culture, art. This training handbook is a small addition to the huge reservoir of educational material concerning the arts. The author expresses the hope that it will serve as a good help for students, and all who care about art.