Yellowstone National ParkЗавантажити презентацію
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Yellowstone National Park, set aside as a national park on March 1, 1872, is located mostly in the U.S. state of Wyoming, though it also extends into Montana and Idaho The park spans an area of 3,472 square miles (8,987 km), comprising lakes, canyons, rivers and mountain ranges The park sits on the Yellowstone Plateau, at an average altitude of 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level. The park was the first of its kind, and is known for its wildlife and geothermal features, especially Old Faithful Geyser, one of the most popular areas in the park. The expansive cultural history of the park has been documented by the 1,000 archeological sites that have been discovered. The park has 1,106 historic structures and features, and of these Obsidian Cliff and five buildings have been designated National Historic Landmarks. Yellowstone was designated an International Biosphere Reserve on October 26, 1976, and a United Nations World Heritage Site on September 8, 1978.
Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-altitude lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent. The Yellowstone Caldera is the largest volcanic system in North America. It has been termed a "supervolcano" because the caldera was formed by exceptionally large explosive eruptions. The caldera is considered an active volcano.
The most famous geyser in the park, and perhaps the world, is Old Faithful Geyser, located in Upper Geyser Basin; the park also contains the largest active geyser in the world- Steamboat Geyser in the Norris Geyser Basin. There are 300 geysers in Yellowstone and a total of at least 10,000 geothermal features altogether. Half the geothermal features and two-thirds of the world's geysers are concentrated in Yellowstone. There are 290 waterfalls of at least 15 feet (4.5 m) in the park, the highest being the Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River at 308 feet (94 m)
Hundreds of species of mammals, birds, fish and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened. Yellowstone is widely considered to be the finest megafauna wildlife habitat in the lower 48 states. There are almost 60 species of mammals in the park, including the endangered gray wolf, the threatened lynx, and grizzly bears. Other large mammals include the bison (buffalo), black bear, elk, moose, mule deer, mountain goat, pronghorn, bighorn sheep and mountain lion.
Eighteen species of fish live in Yellowstone, including the core range of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout - a fish highly sought by anglers. Yellowstone is also home to 6 species of reptiles, such as the painted turtle and western rattlesnake, and 4 species of amphibians, including the Boreal Chorus Frog. 311 species of birds have been reported, almost half of which nest in Yellowstone.
The vast forests and grasslands also include unique species of plants.1,700 species of trees, plants, lichens and other vascular plants are native to the park. Another 170 species are considered to be exotic species and are non-native.