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Презентація на тему:
"The most important inventions"

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"The most important inventions"

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Top-10 The most important inventions

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№1 - Fire People soon discovered the useful properties of fire - its ability to illuminate and warm, to improve on plant and animal foods. "Wild Fire", which flared up during the forest fires or volcanic eruptions, was terrible, but bringing the fire in the cave man "tamed" him. Since that time the fire was a constant companion of man and the foundation of its economy. In ancient times it was an indispensable source of heat, light, and a means for cooking, hunting weapon. However, further gains of culture (ceramics, metallurgy, steel production, steam engines, etc.) must use an integrated fire. Many thousands of people enjoyed the "home fire" kept him from year to year in their caves before they learned how to produce it themselves by friction. Probably, this discovery was an accident, after our ancestors learned how to drill wood. During this operation, the wood is heated, and under favorable conditions, the ignition could occur. Drawing attention to it, people have become widely used for making fire by friction. And only then, with the development of mankind are available to other ways to get open fire.

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№2 - Wheel and Wagon Perhaps, it is difficult to find another invention, which would give a powerful impetus to the development of technology. The prototype was a log-roller, which was at the center thinner than the edges, it was moved under the weight evenly and it does not swing to the side. Later from whole logs were only two rollers at the ends, and between them appeared axis. Then, it was begun to produce separately, and then rigidly fastened together. It was discovered the wheel and the first wagon. In later centuries, many generations of masters have worked on the improvement of this invention. For less friction of the axis wheel greased or steel lubricated with tar. For the sake of reducing the weight of the wheels sawed notches in it, and to strengthen the transverse stiffness of scrapie. After the discovery of metal to produce steel wheel with metal rim and spokes. This could turn the wheel ten times faster and does not afraid of hitting the rocks. Harnessed to a cart-footed horses, a man greatly increased the speed of its movement.

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№3 - Writing The first form of writing in the form of a specially inscribed signs appeared about four thousand years BC However, the writing appeared only after the people invented special graphic characters. The most ancient kind of writing is pictographic. It is assumed that pictography was widespread among the various peoples in the final stages of the Stone Age. But at an early stage in the history of writing the number of icons began to enter the special conditional icons that represent certain concepts (such as a sign of the crossed hands symbolized the exchange). These icons are called ideograms. Everyone who wanted to learn how to write, had to memorize thousands of icons. Only at the end of two thousand BC ancient Phoenicians invented the alphabet letters and sounds, which consisted of 22 consonants, each of which indicates a single sound. How to say four-fifths of all the currently known from the Phoenician alphabet emerged. From the variety of the Phoenician letters evolved other types of writing. The Greeks have made to the Phoenician alphabet the last major improvement - they are denoted by the letters not only the consonants, but vowels.

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Creators were Chinese. Before the invention of paper in China or written on bamboo tablets, or silk. But silk was always very expensive, and bamboo - a very cumbersome and heavy. In 105, Cai Lun had prepared a new type of paper from old fishing nets. Recent experiments have shown that paper can be made from cheap vegetable raw materials: bark, reeds and bamboo. The latter was especially important, because bamboo grows in China in large numbers. From the captured Chinese artisans Arabs themselves have learned to make paper, and for five centuries is very profitable to sell it in Europe. The first is an art borrowed from the Arabs, the Spaniards. In 1154 - Italy, in the 1228th in Germany, in 1309th in England. №4 - Paper - Our era can be called the "paper era" –(A.Sima, French bibliographer)

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№5 – Gunpowder and Firearms Sun Ssu-miao prepared one of the first samples of gunpowder from sulfur and saltpeter, but without a strong explosive effect. In the future composition of the powder was set in three components: carbon, sulfur and potassium nitrate. Only in XII-XIII centuries, the Chinese began to use a gun that resembled firearms, but they invented firecrackers and rocket. In the first third of the XIII century the Arabs have achieved great skill in pyrotechnics, fireworks staging of great beauty. The monk Berthold Schwartz thought of using force propellant gases for throwing stones - he made one of the first European guns.

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№6 -Telegraph, Telephone, Internet, Radio and so on... Only in the middle of the XIX century was the creation of the telegraph, the globe has surrounded by telegraph lines. The first experiments on the communicative method