"The development of modern English"
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The development of modern English Indo-European: Germanic West Germanic Anglo–Frisian Anglic English
The development of modern English language can be divided to: Old English period (V-X A.C.) Middle English period (X-XIV A.C.) Early Modern English period (>XV A.C.) Modern English period (nowdays)
Middle English period (X-XV A.C.) Middle English period (X-XV A.C.) Middle English period (X-XIV A.C.)
Great Vowel Shift (XIV-XVIII A.C.) /a:/ →[æː] →[ɛː], [eː] → [eɪ] (make) /ɛː/ →[eː] →[iː]/ [eɪ] (beak/break) /eː/ →[iː] (feet) /iː/ →[ɪi] →[əɪ] →[aɪ] (mice) /ɔː/ →[oː] →[oʊ]/[əʊ] (boat) /oː/ →[uː] (boot) /uː/ →[uʊ] →[əʊ] →[aʊ] (mouse) Middle English period (X-XV A.C.)
Early Modern English period (>XV A.C.) With the development of typing there had started the fixation of rules of normal and official English; phonetics and spoken language continued changing.
Different ethnical structure generated lots of dialects: Cockney (London) Scouse (Liverpool ) West Country East England Birmingham Cornwall Cumberland Devonshire Dorset Northfolk Somerset Sussex Westmorland North Wiltshire Yorkshire Northumberlan Lancashire England Lowland Scottish Belfast South Wales Yola Scotland, Ireland and Wales
Lallans Scots (Lowland Scots) Regions: Scotland, Northern Ireland Strength: 1,5 000 000 Foundation: XIV-XVI A.C. Has lots of smaller dialects. Mainly on country territories, north and island. no diphthongizes (gate = [ge:t] ) -not = -nae (dinnae = don't) -y = [e] (city = [cite]) precise [r] (in “car”, “curve” etc) “I’m not” = “I amn’t” “Wasn’t” = “Mur-nie” “Why not?” = “How not?” “I’m going to…” = “I’m away to…” “I think that” = “I fear “ yes = aye, know = ken, that = yon, girl = lassie, England = Down South, church= kirk, food = scran, crazy = radge, drunken = blutered etc.
Cockney (London worker’s slang) Regions: London Strenght: n/a Foundation: XIV-XIX A.C. Was formed in London in lower social classes of different ethnos, mainly – workers. Now it means derisive nickname of lower or middle class’s London citizen. skipping [h] («not half» = «not 'alf») skipping last [t] (fight = [ʃaɪ] ) «isn’t», «am not» =«ain’t» [θ] = [f] («thousand» = «faas’nd») [ð] = [v] (“brother» = «brover») [aʊ] = [æː] (down = [dæːn]) [t] = [ʔ] ( bottle = bo’’le) [r] =[ʋ] (really = “weally”) Rhythm slangs: Daisy roots = boots, Adam and Eve = believe, Penelope cruz = booze, Lemon squeezy = easy etc