Punctuation in English
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Punctuation in English Author: Lukina K.S. Teacher: Konovalova T. A. School: GBOU SOSH №1367 2013
The Goal of the Research is to understand the place of punctuation marks in English sentences, their function in the learning of English, understand their meanings. The practical goal is to teach English learners to put down punctuation marks in sentences correctly.
The tasks are to learn books and articles on punctuation, to look for different examples of punctuation in the original literature and analyze the meanings of punctuation marks, to classify them in accordance with their meanings.
The subject of the research is punctuation marks; the object is Syntax and Punctuation. To learn them we have used some methods of research such as comparative and contextual analyses.
What is Punctuation? Punctuation is “the marks used to divide a piece of writing into sentences, phrases etc.” Punctuation is an art, not a science, and a sentence can often be punctuated correctly in more than one way. It may also vary according to style.
Punctuation marks: Apostrophe ' Round brackets ( ) Square brackets [ ] Colon : Semi-colon ; Comma , Hyphen - Dash —– 9. Ellipsis … 10. Question Mark ? 11. Exclamation Mark ! 12. Full Stop . 13. Single Quotation Mark ‘ ’ 14. Double Quotation Marks. “ ”
Apostrophe ' is used to indicate possession the children's books, the guards' duties the witness's lie Janet and Jane's house to indicate contractions the house wasn't at its best
Round brackets ( ) is used: for additional information or explanation 1) To clarify or inform. Jamie's bike was red (bright red) with a yellow stripe. 2) For asides and comments The bear was pink (I kid you not).
Square brackets [ ] are used : for editorial information, etc 1) To amend or supplement the given details His first book [The Colour Of Magic] was written in 1989. 2) To replace phrases for clarity or brevity [The treaty] decreed that no bear should be painted pink.
Colon ( : ) is used : before a list, summary or quote I could only find three of the ingredients: sugar, flour and coconut. To summarise: we found , set up our tent and then the bears attacked. to complete a statement of fact There are only three kinds of people: the good, the bad and the ugly.
Semi-colon( ; ) is used : to separate independent clauses not joined by a conjuction The Giants won the Superbowl; it was a good day for the bookies. to separate independent clauses joined by conjunctive adverbs such as however, hence, therefore, conversely, consequently, and nevertheless The Giants were heavily favoured; consequently, the payouts were small. to separate long or complicated elements in a series The guests were John, the dentist; Bill and Lucy; and Howard, the duck. to separate closely related elements Studying is difficult; failing, insufferable. to precede a word, phrase, or abbreviation introducing an explanatory or summarizing statement Vehicles are machines for moving people and things; for example, cars, trucks, and boats.
Comma ( , ) is used between a list of three or more words Up, down, left and right. before a conjunction I did my best to protect the camp, but the bears were too aggressive. When and or or are used the comma is optional. The sizes are small, medium or large.
Comma ( , ) is used : to give additional information To indicate contrast. The snake was brown, not green, and it was quite small. 2) Where the phrase could be in brackets. The recipe, which we hadn't tried before, is very easy to follow. 3) Where the phrase adds relevant information. Mr. Hardy, 68, ran his first marathon five years ago. 4) Where the addition is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. Mr. Hardy, who enjoys bird watching, ran his first marathon five years ago. 5) Where the main clause of the sentence is dependent on the preceding clause. If at first you don't succeed, give up.
Comma ( , ) is used : for opening phrases, conjunctive verbs, etc. Introductory or opening phrases. In general, sixty-eight is quite old to run a marathon. Conjunctive verbs. Unfortunately, the bear was already in a bad mood and, furthermore, pink wasn't its colour. 3) Following for example, that is, etc You should use commas, for example, around 'for example'. where a pause is required Whatever happens, don't panic.
Comma ( , ) is used : in address or quotation And then the boss said, "I'm sending you to Outer Mongolia." to indicate the omission of a word or phrase Use too much sugar and the mixture will be sweet, [use] too little and it will be sour Conditionals If he leaves early, he will be on time for the meeting. Clauses Whenever he is in town, he visits us.
Hyphen (-) is used with some prefixes and suffixes pre-Christmas, under-weight to form compound words up-to-the-minute news with fractions, numbers and initial letters one-half, sixty-four X-ray, T-shirt, U-Turn
Dash (--) is used for emphasis The book was great — a really good read. for explanation or addition The Colour Of Magic — the first of the series — was written in 1989.
Ellipsis (…) are used to indicate missing words in a quotation "the sight was awesome...truly amazing"
Quotation marks (″ ″) are used for direct speech Janet asked, "Why can't we go today?" for quotes inside quotes, use single quotation marks. Billy said, "So then John told her 'I don't want to go today' and Janet cried." for words that are defined, that follow certain phrases or that have special meaning 'Buch' is German for book.
Question Mark ( ?) is used to end direct questions, requiring a response May I borrow your copy of the book?
Double Quotation Marks ( “ ” ) are used: to set off quotations The President's only memorable quote was “don't quote me on that”. to indicate dialogue “Help!” we cried.
Single Quotation Mark ( ‘ ’ ) is used: to set off quotations within quotations He said, "the word ‘splivich’ will not be found in a standard dictionary".
Practical Part The results show that the level of knowledge of punctuation is low, 1 pupil from 24 did 73 % correctly. 4 pupils did 60 %. 4 pupils - 53 %. The other 15 did less than 50 % correctly. Nobody has done the whole test correctly.
Сonclusion of Practical Work “Moon and Sixpence” by W. Somerset Maugham. The most frequently used punctuation marks are comma and full stop. Less frequently used than comma are semi-colon, apostrophe and hyphen. In the third place there are double quotation marks, question mark, quotation marks, dash. The least frequently used punctuation marks are round brackets.
Conclusion we found different examples of punctuation marks in the book “Moon and Sixpence” by W. Somerset Maugham their meanings classified them in accordance with their meanings