CONSTANTS FOR COMPARING ENGLISH AND MODERN UKRAINIAN MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
Презентація по слайдам:
MEANINGS OF THE MORPHEME speech (lexical) – conveys generalized reflection of reality (e.g., чит- has the meaning of perceiving something, which is presented in letters); derivational – is added to the speech meaning (e.g., -ач in глядач indicates the doer of an action; -льн in вітальня points out a place); relational – purely grammatical meaning, which indicates the relations between words in a sentence (e.g., The boy reads a book. Його зацікавили цією книгою).
ROLE OF THE MORPHEME IN A WORD Segmental – which can be singled out by means of word segmentation: Root; Affixal; Inflectional; Interfexes. Non-segmental morphemes: Zero inflections; Suprasegmental.
SUPPLETIVITY Sometimes is used for building new forms of a word in both languages (e. g., to be – was, were; good – better, the best; поганий – гірший, найгірший, я – мене, ми – наш).
GRAMMATICAL MEANING A generalized meaning, possessed by sets of words, their forms, which are regularly registered in different syntactic constructions. Thus, such words like finger, affair, table, pen, winter, сад, папір, яблуко, праця, актор and the like are characterized with the meaning of substantivity \ thingness.
GRAMMATICAL MEANING vs LEXICAL MEANING existence of the formal oppositions within the grammatical system of a language (girl :: girls, girl :: girl’s, girls :: girls’); the abstract character of generalization; relations with reality (baby belongs to the neutral gender in English, das Maedchen – in German, картина is the Noun of the feminine gender in Ukrainian); grammatical meaning serves as a ground for grammatical categories.
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY is generally represented by at least two grammatical forms. A simple case of oppositions in pairs of grammatical forms are found, for instance, between the Singular and the Plural in Nouns, or Active and Passive Voice in Verbs.
GRAMMATICAL FORM presents the unity of grammatical meaning and forms of its expression. In He waters the flowers every day and Still waters run deep we have 2 different forms, which coincide, though the 1st indicates the Verb in the 3rd person singular of the Present Indefinite Tense and the 2nd – the Noun in the Plural form.
GRAMMATICAL FORMS Synthetical forms reveal the grammatical meaning within the word boundaries, i. e. lexical and grammatical meanings are combined within one grammatical form (e.g., inflections; suppletivity; sound interchange – tooth – teeth, to leave – left, left, важкий – важче). Analytical forms consist of at least two words but actually constitute one sense-unit. In this case the lexical meaning is revealed through the meaningful component and the grammatical meaning by the functional element (e. g., буду малювати, сказав би, have come, would do).
PRINCIPLES OF PART-OF-SPEECH CLASSIFICATION semantic – they are united according to the same general grammatical meaning (e.g., substantivity – for nouns, verbality – for verbs, quality – for adjectives, the quality of the quality – for adverbs, number – for numerals, state – for statives); morphological – a set of certain grammatical categories; syntactic – the functions in the sentence; specific modifiers they possess; typical valency; word-building – a set of word-building patterns necessary for deriving a part of speech.
PARTS OF SPEECH FUNCTIONAL: prepositions, conjunctions, particles, articles (not in Ukrainian), modal words, interjections. NOTIONAL: nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, statives.
NOUNS: semantic classification Proper: names of people (American, Michael, німець, Семен), family names (Smith, Сидорчук), geographical names (London, Київ), names of companies, newspapers, journals (Hoover, The Times, “Рудь”, “Урядовий кур’єр”). Common: concrete (hat, heart, дім, капелюх), abstract (joy, news, інформація, знання), collective (family, cattle, екіпаж, міліція), names of materials (air, sugar, борошно, вугілля), class nouns (bird, furniture, квітка, ссавець).
The category of number They distinguish the plural and the singular number in the languages compared. Though only nouns and some pronouns have this category in English. In Ukrainian this category is characteristic of nouns, adjectives, ordinal numerals, all pronouns except reflexive. The main way of plural forming is inner flexion. Sometimes there is an alternation in the stem: wife – wives, друг – друзі. Completely allomorphic is also the formation of plural number by root vowel interchange in English: tooth – teeth, foot – feet. Some English nouns have zero plural: deer, salmon. There are borrowed noun inflexions: medium - media, criterion – criteria.
SINGULARIA TANTUM PLURALIA TANTUM milk - молоко trousers - штани air - повітря preserves -консерви mankind - людство помиї - slops chess шахи money гроші сміття slops зелень greens
The category of case It unites all nouns (except foreign words), pronouns, adjectives, numerals in Ukrainian. While in English only animate Nouns possess the category of case. The number of cases also proves allomorphism: 2 in English, 7 in Ukrainian. In English ‘s can be joined not only to one morpheme, but also to the whole word-combination or sentence: This is a girl I met yesterday’s mother.
The category of gender English lacks grammatical category of gender, though there exists a conceptual category of gender. Most often biological sex is not differentiated: teacher, friend. If you want to emphasize the biological sex you should use lexical means, sometimes the differences are displayed with the help of lexical means: bull – cows, boy friend – girl friend, he-wolf – she-wolf, Tom-cat, Sally-cat or by means of word forming suffixes: -ess (for feminine) lioness, tigress; -er (for masculine) – widow – widower. All Ukrainian nouns, except pluralia tantum, belong to one of three genders (masculine, feminine, neutral).
CLASSES OF PRONOUNS (I) personal (e. g., I, she, я, ти, possess the categories of gender, case, number); possessive (e.g., my; мій, твій – have gender, number, case); reflexive (e.g., myself – has number; себе); demonstrative (e.g., this – has number, such, цей – have gender, number); interrogative (e.g., what; який – may have gender, number and case);
CLASSES OF PRONOUNS (II) relative (coincide in form with interrogative); reciprocal (e.g., each other; один одного – have gender forms); negative (e.g., nobody, nothing; ніскільки, нічий – have number, gender, case); indefinite (e.g., each, something; дехто, який-небудь – have number, gender, case).
THE NUMERAL In Ukrainian all Numerals are declinable, possessing the categories of number, case and gender distinctions: десяти, другого, двом цілим і чотирьом десятим тощо. Ukrainian numerals also denote the indefinite number (e.g., декілька, кільканадцять) and a group of objects (e.g., тринадцятеро, п’ятеро). In English the Numerals are invariable.
CLASSES OF NUMERALS cardinal (e.g., three, один, двадцять три); ordinal (e.g., the second, восьмий); fractional (e.g., one-forth, дві треті).
THE ADJECTIVE The adjective expresses the attributes of substances (an interesting book, важливі заходи) and can serve as a predicative (the child was small, дитина була маленькою). The Ukrainian adjective possesses grammatical categories of gender, number, case and degrees of comparison, whereas the latter is the only category registered in English.
CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES Relative - express relations to qualities. They characterize objects and phenomena through their relation to other objects and phenomena (economic progress, міський житель). Qualitative (gradable) in both languages possess the category of degrees of comparison.
RELATIVE ADJECTIVES In Ukrainian this group is numerous and non-divided (київський, журавлиний, Надіїн, Михайлів, козацький, виборчий, доїльний). Ukrainian also contains contracted root adjectives like винен, зелен; diminutive and augmentative forms of adjectives (малесенький; здоровенний). In English: possessive (Byronic, Shakespearian); genuinely relative (Italian, eastern).
The category of comparison It determines the difference in the degree to which a certain quality is realized. The forms of comparison are divided into analytical, synthetical and suppletive. Ukrainian doesn’t show any restrictions as to the analytical or synthetical formation of degrees of comparison. But English adjectives and adverbs form their degrees of comparison synthetically if only they are mono- or disyllabic. Hence, analytical forms of degrees of comparison are widespread in English.
THE ADVERB It is an indeclinable notional part of speech expressing the quality or the state of an action, the circumstances in which the action proceeds, or a degree of some other quality.
CLASSES OF ADVERBS Adverbs denote certain circumstances (time – now, yesterday, щойно, рано; place or direction – here, somewhere, надворі, десь; cause and purpose – why, на зло; frequency and repetition – usually, twice, завжди, часто; degree – extremely, fairly, цілком, майже; manner of action – likewise, suddenly, upside-down, нехотячи, випадково; consequence and cause – therefore, hence, тому що, у зв’язку з).
QUALITATIVE ADVERBS Qualitative adverbs (e.g., distinctly, slowly, швидко, гарно) in both languages possess degrees of comparison. It is the only grammatical category, which this part of speech possesses in both languages. The rules of building such forms are the same as for the Adjectives.
THE STATIVE They are invariable notional words denoting the physical state of persons, things or phenomena, the psychological state of persons, state in motion. English statives possess a characteristic prefix a- (alike, afloat, awake). Ukrainian statives are built by means of the suffix –o (прикро), -e (добре), -a (шкода). They may be graded (e.g., He is more dead than alive. Їй стало холодніше).
THE VERB Conveys verbality, i.e. different types of activity (make, sing, write, сіяти), various processes (grow, appear, рости), the inner state of a person (worry, feel, хворіти, каятися), possession (have, possess, мати). Due to these lexico-grammatical properties the verb generally functions in the sentence as predicate.
TYPES OF PREDICATION incomplete predication auxiliary verbs (do, shall, would, мати); modal (can, to be to, ought to, dare, могти, вміти, мусити); linking verbs (to be, to feel, to become, to remain, бути, ставати). complete predication (notional): subjective (to sleep, іти – always intransitive); objective (to envy, давати - only transitive); terminative (to find, зачиняти - express an action with some result); durative (to hope, любити - express an action without any aim); mixed (to know, to remember, сидіти - both terminative and durative); reflexive (to wash oneself, кусатися, журитися).
Verbal categories. The category of aspect. It is lexico-grammatical in Ukrainian and comprises two aspects: perfect – non-perfect. English verb has two aspects as well: common and continuous. English common aspect can correspond to either perfect or non-perfect aspect in Ukrainian. But not all English verbs have continuous aspect. To hear, to see, to know, etc. lack this form. Sometimes English link-verbs can be used in the continuous aspect, when combined with an adjective: He is being tired (sad). It’s not typical of Ukrainian.
The category of voice. There are three voices in Ukrainian: active, passive and reflexive. There are only two voices in English – active and passive (to be + Past Participle in Passive). Only transitive verbs can be used in the Passive Voice in English. Passive constructions are more frequent in English than in Ukrainian.
The category of tense. There exist 3 tense forms in the languages compared. Tense is determined from a certain starting point. But there’s a relative tense in English – Future-in-the-Past.
The present tense. It can refer an action not only to the present, but also to the past and future. In English Present Perfect means the time, which is past in fact. We use present instead of future in subordinate clauses of time and condition. In Ukrainian we use Present instead of Past (Він сказав, що йде в кіно).
The past tense. The Past Tense in English has only past meaning, in Ukrainian it expresses present as well: Ну, я пішов. There’s Past Perfect (before past) in English, which is not used in Ukrainian.