TYPOLOGY OF THE WORD-GROUP IN ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN
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THE WORD-GROUP (I) The word-group in both languages consists of two or more grammatically connected notional parts of speech expressing some content. Word-groups in English and Ukrainian may be free or idiomatically bound.
THE WORD-GROUP (II) The elements of notional word-groups can be joined either syndetically by means of prepositions or conjunctions (books for reading, читати по черзі) or asyndetically by means of intonation (easy-reading books, писати швидко). English has a greater asyndetic potential if compared with Ukrainian because of its analytical character.
SYNTAGMATIC GROUPINGS syntagmatic groupings of notional words alone (interesting book, цікава книга), syntagmatic groupings of notional words with functional words (to get rid of sth, зважати на щось), syntagmatic groupings of functional words alone (up to, тому що).
The links between the elements of a word-group predicative, uniting the subject and the predicate. Such word-groups (I go, Ми читаємо) build up the basis of a sentence; we observe objective connections in see a book, малювати картину; attributive connection unites a substance with its attribute expressed by an adjective or a noun (a puny creature, цікава новина); adverbial connection is subdivided into primary and secondary.
Adverbial connections The primary adverbial connection is established between the verb and its adverbial modifiers of various standings (to talk seriously, to get with happiness, говорити голосно, йти з радістю). The secondary adverbial connection is established between the non-verbal kernel expressing a quality and its adverbial modifiers of various standings (wonderfully interesting, very much at ease, дуже весело).
THE STRUCTURAL FORMS OF WORD-GROUPS (I) simple, or elemental word-groups which consist of two components connected with the help of one grammatical means (synthetic or analytical): this book, to see her, cotton shirt; ці книжки, гарно читати, зайти у фойє. complicated, i. e. with two ways of grammatical connection: writing and reading letters, to see Mike driving a car, довгі речення для тебе для аналізу.
COORDINATE WORD-GROUPS The elements of the first class are joined either syndetically (pens and pencils, газети та журнали) or asyndetically (read, translate, learn; їсти, пити, спати). They are treated open.
SUBORDINATE WORD-GROUPS (I) They consist of a head component, which is the nucleus of a word-group, and one of more adjuncts \ complements \ subordinate elements and are treated closed (small children, to love her, very nice, we all, two of the guys, well enough, afraid to answer, гра акторів, вартий нагороди, дехто з учнів, мало часу, дуже весело, легко на душі).
THE SENTENCE Any coherent connection of words according to a definite syntactic pattern with some communicative purpose related to reality is considered to be a sentence. It is the main communicative language unit.
FEATURES OF THE SENTENCE (II) The sentence is aimed at rendering some information. Such information exchange proves the role of communication as one of sentence indicators. Predication establishes a certain grammatical combination of words. Sentence semantics presents the unity of nominative and predicative aspects. Modality is the ground for expressing the speaker’s attitude towards the content of an utterance.
According to the aim of communication sentences fall into: declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory.
Declarative sentences They split into affirmative and negative statements of real, wishful and conditional modality (The door opened. He made no remark. Раптом вона заплакала. Він не заперечував цього). If negation stands in front of the predicate it bears the general meaning of negation (She doesn’t want to leave. Він не прийшов на зустріч). Though certain elements of a sentence may be negated as well (She studies not at the University. Він навчається не в Києві). Mind that English has no double negation: She never admitted her mistakes. Вона ніколи не визнавала своїх помилок.
Interrogative sentences (I) They possess a common communicative function and the corresponding kinds: general questions in English start with an auxiliary, modal or linking verb followed by the subject, whereas in Ukrainian – with any part of the sentence (Did you do that? Ти це зробив?). Structural identity is observed in disjunctive\tag-questions consisting of an affirmative or negative statement followed respectively by a negative and affirmative question-tag (She is fond of music, isn’t she? Ти боїшся, чи не так?).
Interrogative sentences (II) Alternative questions are characterized in both languages by isomorphic features. The beginning of these sentences presents a general question (Is it a pen or a pencil? Ви любите кіно або театр?). Special questions are opened with an interrogative pronoun or adverb, which may be proceeded by prepositions, particles or interjections (What did you do yesterday? Що вона зробила?).
Interrogative sentences (III) Allomorphic is the use of prepositions in the final position in English (What do you depend upon?). Rhetorical questions have a modal meaning, which does not contain any new information for a speaker. So they need no answers (Who should I blame? Невже ти цього не чув?).
Imperative sentences They express demands, orders, commands, requests, warnings, prohibition, persuasion, etc. (Go to the classroom! Говори правду!).
ONE-MEMBER SENTENCES IN BOTH LANGUAGES nominative (Night. Measure for Measure. Темнота та тиша. Чудовий сон!); inducive (Go right now! Проходьте!); exclamatory (Great! Як гарно!); infinitival (To be or not to be? Що робити?); elliptical (Taking risks? Подумав?).
ONE-MEMBER SENTENCES IN UKRAINIAN (I) indefinite personal, where the doer of an action is not identified (Нам подали на стіл обід). In English the predicate in the sentences conveying the same idea is expressed in the Passive Voice form (We were served coffee); generalized personal, where any person may be the doer of the action (Хліб сіль їж, а правду ріж. Працювали весь день). In the English equivalent sentences the subject may be expressed by one, we, you (One can enjoy the show. You can’t be happy about it);
ONE-MEMBER SENTENCES IN UKRAINIAN (II) impersonal, where the doer of an action can’t be reconstructed (Завечоріло. Прохолодно. Мені боляче. На столі олівці). In the corresponding English sentences most often we use the formal subject It / There, or change the structure of the sentence (Twilight set in. It is getting cold. It gives me much pain. There are pencils on the table).
TWO-MEMBER SENTENCES (II) simple It has only one predicative link between the subject and the predicate (She is in the garden. Він сьогодні не пішов у гості). composite It can have more than one link of such a kind. Hence, it contains two clauses.
COMPOUND SENTENCES If the links between clauses are coordinate, we deal with a compound sentence. Clauses may be joined by means of copulative and adversative conjunctions, or asyndetically in both languages (Вона не хотіла йти на концерт, але ми її умовили. He was very excited and his friends were excited as well). In English the causal conjunction for unites coordinate clauses (She came in time for we used to ask her about it not once).
COMPLEX SENTENCES (I) If one of the clauses in a composite sentence governs another one, they are linked subordinately. Such a sentence is called complex. Depending upon the function of a subordinate clause in the whole sentence, clauses fall into: subject (What was important for him was absolutely necessary for us. Хто чесно бореться, (той) завжди перемагає); predicative (She was as if frightened to death. Вона не така, щоб нічого не робити по дому);
COMPLEX SENTENCES (II) object (He knew that she was faithful to him. Я хотів, щоб у мене було більше вільного часу); attributive (The house, which was built not far from the town, was quite big. Оце та станція, на якій я зійшов минулого разу); adverbial clauses: of place (He is happy to be at home where he can find his true friends. Вони пішли туди, де ми їх не чекали), of time (When you are free, I am always busy. Я чекав на них, доки не пішов дощ),
COMPLEX SENTENCES (III) manner (She cried as she was asked. Вітер замутив воду, аж осока зашуміла), comparison (He looked as if he had been caught in a trap. Вона виглядає так, начебто вона отримала двійку), condition (If you ask me, I’ll tell you all about this case. Якби все було добре, вона не поїхала б додому), concession (She was happy, though we all knew her fault. Хоча вона й була сердитою, ми добре провели час),
COMPLEX SENTENCES (IV) purpose (I do it, so that you may be pleased. Ми зателефонуємо йому, щоб він не гаяв час), cause (I am sorry, because you have failed to amuse me. Я розсердився, тому що ви не виконали свої обіцянки), result or consequence (I sat down quickly so that you might be seen by many people. Повітря було настільки прозоре, що я бачив зорі), attendant circumstances (I went down the street, my shoes were creaking) [only in English]. It corresponds to a compound sentence in Ukrainian (Я пішов по вулиці, а мої черевики скрипіли).
FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF THE SENTENCE Main: the subject; the predicate. Secondary: an object; an attribute; an adverbial modifier.
THE SUBJECT NOTIONAL points out a person or a non-person [in both languages] FORMAL functions as a position-filler [only in English; expressed by It / There]
FORMS OF NOTIONAL SUBJECT Simple (The fog is thinning. She is very nice. Четвертий переміг. “Але” – сполучник); Phrasal (To ask him again is a mistake); Clausal (Who has done it is to be found. Того, хто це зробив, буде покарано); Complex [only in English] (She is supposed to win).
FORMS OF FORMAL SUBJECT impersonal – describes various states of nature, things, characteristics of environment, denoting time, distance (It is spring); introductory – introduces the notional subject (It is impossible to deny it. There was a silence for a moment); emphatic - in emphatic constructions (It is he, who did it).
THE SIMPLE PREDICATE simple verbal (I like singing. She is in the garden. Я пішов у кіно). simple nominal (He, a liar! Захоплююча гра футбол).
THE COMPOUND PREDICATE COMPOUND VERBAL compound aspect verbal (He began reading a book. Він розпочав працювати в дитинстві), compound modal verbal (We can read quickly. Ми можемо записати цей матеріал). COMPOUND NOMINAL compound nominal (London is the capital of England. Київ – столиця України), double (only in English – The sun rose red).
AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SUBJECT & THE PREDICATE INVERSION IN ENGLISH: full [P + S + O] (Here comes the lady); partial [P + S + P + O] (Happy may you be); grammatical (So do I); emphatic (Never I have seen her); linking (Next comes Ann).
FORMS OF OBJECT direct (He sees this monument for the first time. Він запитав дозвіл на виїзд); indirect (Tell him the truth. Зробіть йому масаж); prepositional (Get rid of these mistakes. Дозвіл на відрядження був отриманий вчасно); cognate (He lived a happy life. Він жив подвійним життям); complex [only in English]( I saw her cry).
TYPES OF ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS time, place, manner, cause, purpose, result, condition, concession, comparison, attendant circumstances [only in English] (She went to Africa to die from malaria there).