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Презентація на тему:
"Nouns in English"

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"Nouns in English"

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Презентація по слайдам:

Слайд 1

Nouns in English

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Plural Nouns Regular Plurals end with s or es.

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Add -es to make nouns plural that end with: s buses x taxes ch benches sh dishes

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Add -ies to make nouns plural that end with a consonant and -y: Lady - ladies Fry – fries City – cities Army – armies

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Most nouns that end in -f or -fe change to -ves when made plural: Calf - calves Knife – knives Leaf – leaves Wolf – wolves Wife - wives

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BUT: Chief – chiefs Handkerchief – handkerchiefs Roof – roofs Safe - safes

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Nouns that end in -o add -es when made plural. Tomato - tomatoes Potato – potatoes Hero -heroes

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BUT: Piano – pianos Photo - photos

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ends with -us Change -us to -i cactus - cacti nucleus - nuclei focus - foci

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ends with -is Change -is to -es analysis - analyses crisis - crises thesis - theses

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ends with -on Change -on to -a phenomenon - phenomena criterion - criteria

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Some nouns do not change at all when made plural: Sheep - sheep Deer – deer Moose – moose Trout – trout

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Some nouns become a new word when made plural: Man – men Woman – women Foot - feet Goose – geese Tooth – teeth Mouse – mice Louse - lice

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Child – children Ox – oxen

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A few nouns have only plural forms: Scissors Trousers Jeans Spectacles Clothes

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A few nouns have only plural forms: Tongs Scales Savings Goods Stairs Arms

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Nouns that have only singular forms: Money Fruit Hair Twilight Advice News

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Compound Nouns: the main word has plural form Singular Plural billboard billboards cupful cupfuls campground campgrounds maid of honor maids of honor attorney-at-law attorneys-at-law step-brother step-brothers Great-grandma Great-grandmas

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Possessive Case SINGULAR: man – man’s, child- child’s PLURAL: chairs – chairs’, rooms – rooms’, men - men’s, women – women’s

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Possessive Case of Compounds and Phrases – ‘s is added to the whole phrase Mother-in-law – mother-in-law’s Maid of honor – maid of honor’s Attorney-at-law - attorney-at-law’s

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Noun Suffixes

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Denoting people

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People in a certain occupation or activity: er (-or): adviser, baker, butcher, driver, teacher, reader, protector, director, earner / actor, advisor, ancestor, animator, bachelor, counselor, navigator, tailor, vendor, warrior eer: engineer, mountaineer, volunteer, domineer, auctioneer, profiteer, racketeer

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Denoting people in a certain activity: ster: gangster, gamester, trickster, prankster, funster ee: addressee, grantee, employee, attendee, refugee, escapee, returnee ant: servant, inhabitant, aspirant, immigrant

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Denoting females/ instruments: ess: duchess, countess, princess, empress, waitress, stewardess, hostess, ina, ine: heroine, czarina, concertina,

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Small things: let = small, unimportant: piglet, owlet, booklet ling = small: duckling, gosling, princeling ette = small, imitation: cigarette, kitchenette, diskette

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State/ activity: ing: bathing, reading, cooking, writing, speaking tion/ -sion: depression, revolution, opression, ogranization ment: movement, agreement, development, pavement al: arrival, approval, festival, portal

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State/ status: hood: childhood, brotherhood, motherhood, neighborhood, boyhood, parenthood, manhood ness: happiness, freshness, attentiveness, fastness, aggressiveness, correctness, awareness ity: rapidity, stupidity, aridity

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Amount: ful: handful, mouthful, spoonful, bowful age: coverage, courage, percentage,

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Ideas/ conditions: ism = doctrine: communism, capitalism, racism ship= condition: dictatorship

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Ideas/ followers: ist = follower: communist, capitalist, racist an = follower, born in: republican, American, Asian ite = follower, born in: islamite, kyivite.

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