Education in the UK
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The primary element of the educational system in the UK is preschool education. For a long time in the UK there were public childcare facilities for children from poor families. Today they have been transformed into modern types of preschools that provide an individual approach to the upbringing of children.
Preschool establishments in the country are not enough to cover the care of all children in school. Therefore, institutions of preschool education are created which include: - municipal day nurseries opened by local authorities for children aged from several months to 4-5 years old. Such institutions in the country are quite common, they work from 8 to 18 hours. during the year and intended for the upbringing of children whose parents work, but who have a low income and need services of state pre-school education institutions. - private day nurseries - are created by various private organizations and individuals, charitable societies, religious organizations, etc. - nursery schools and classes for children aged 3-5 years. There are even queues of those who want to arrange their children;
- nursing centers - combined day nurseries and nurseries - are quite small in number. Nursery classes are organized at primary schools for the purpose of mental, physical, moral, aesthetic and labor development of the child, the formation of its individuality; - game groups - the most common type of pre-school establishments, united in the Association, financed partly at the expense of the state, charitable contributions and to a large extent parents. Here, more than a third of all children aged 2-3 years are raised, the group has from 6 to 40 children and runs 2-3 hours from two to five days a week. - in the clubs of the mother and the child, the presence of the mother is mandatory for the entire period of stay of the children in the group; - "groups of opportunities" - intended for the education of children with different developmental defects.
Secondary education in Great Britain Schooling in the UK starts with 5 years at a school for kids. It is as close as possible to home game conditions. From 7 to 11 years old, children study at elementary school. High school is compulsory up to 15 years. Important exams appear at the age of 11, 12, and 13.
The following types of schools that functioned at the beginning of the 21st century can be identified. in the UK: - City Technological Colleges, implemented under the Baker Act in 1988 and aimed at specialization in the field of information technology. They involve the involvement of private business in their financing and management. There are 16 of them; - specialized schools (since 1993) - former general education, which, after the creation of certain conditions (educational, financial, etc.), were granted specialized status and received additional funding from the government. There are mathematical, technological, natural sciences, languages (1995), sports, artistic (1996), propaganda, scientific, mathematical, computer, technical, humanitarian and musical (2004) schools. - communal schools - the status given to secondary schools. They are governed by local educational administrations, the Labor Government; - stock schools - the status given by the Labor Administration to the absolute majority of grant schools. Its origin has been taken since 1988. Now they exist about 1100;
Voluntary financially and voluntarily controlled schools are private religious schools that receive public funding. - grammar schools give full secondary education and the right to enter higher education institutions at any faculty. In such schools, up to 15% of the best graduates of elementary schools study. - the average modern school - the most mass in the country. After graduation, the graduate receives a certificate, not a certificate (as in grammar), which does not give access to a higher education institution. Studying in such schools is separate, their goal is to prepare students for mastering mass professions, so much attention is paid to professional training. Currently, such schools account for 179 out of 40,000 students; - city academies, founded by the Labor Government in the socially poor areas of large cities. - lighthouse schools - educational institutions that carry out methodological work in the area of disseminating advanced pedagogical experience through mentoring, providing opportunities for professional development for teachers of other schools, counseling, etc. In 2001, they employed 1,000;
- centers of professional quality - started in 2001 as vocational education centers for children aged 14-19; - private privileged schools (public schools) prepare their graduates for admission to university and to hold senior positions in politics, economics, army, and the church.
Higher education in the UK To date, in the UK, there are over 850 of them (43 universities, 159 pedagogical colleges, 30 polytechnic institutes, etc.). The most prestigious among the universities is Oxford (1168) and Cambridge (1269). The largest university in the country is London: it has 45 thousand students in the hospital and 27 thousand students in the correspondence department, which is 16% of all students in the country.
The system of higher education is two-level. The first stage is to receive a bachelor's degree in the chosen area of science and professional activities. A bachelor's degree is awarded after 3-4 years of study at a university, institute or college full-time. The second degree leads to a master's degree or a doctor's degree. All universities in the UK have a high degree of autonomy in determining courses, programs and teaching methods
All universities in the UK have a high degree of autonomy in defining courses, programs and teaching methods. The general policy in higher education is provided by the Ministry of Education and Training through the distribution of financial and material resources. The training begins on September 1 and formally ends on August 30, but in reality the school year is shorter. Each higher educational institution is autonomous in drawing up the schedule of the academic year, subject to the general criteria: graduation in June, several (3-5) weeks of breaks for major religious holidays.
The school year is divided into three parts (semesters), but most recently, most higher education institutions reduce the number of hours to provide students with time to review the material and prepare for the final examinations. Some universities have mid-week holidays (up to 8 weeks of reading) as a time for self-education of students. There is a noticeable tendency towards a two-semester academic year with breaks between the semesters. The number and distribution of weekly teaching hours (lectures, seminars, various laboratory works, etc.) is carried out by higher educational institutions.
Independent work of university students is planned and considered as a matter of great importance. Among its forms, work in libraries that are open and at leisure is dominated. Student holidays are considered to be time appointed not so much for rest, as for work with literature, writing essays.