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Persian Wars: Famous Battles Marathon (490 BCE) 26 miles from Athens Thermopylae (480 BCE) 300 Spartans at the Mountain pass Salamis (480 BCE) Athenian navy victorious
Great Athenian Philosophers Socrates Know thyself! question everything only the pursuit of goodness brings happiness. Plato The Academy The world of the FORMS The Republic philosopher-king
Great Athenian Philosophers Aristotle The Lyceum “Golden Mean” [everything in moderation]. Logic. Scientific method.
Athens: The Arts & Sciences DRAMA (tragedians): Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides THE SCIENCES: Pythagoras Democritus all matter made up of small atoms. Hippocrates “Father of Medicine”
Hellenistic Philosophers Cynics Diogenes ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries. citizens of the world. live a humble, simple life. Epicurians Epicurus avoid pain & seek pleasure. all excess leads to pain! politics should be avoided.
Hellenistic Philosophers Stoics Zeno nature is the expansion of divine will. concept of natural law. get involved in politics, not for personal gain, but to perform virtuous acts for the good of all. true happiness is found in great achievements.
Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences Scientists / Mathematicians: Aristarchus heliocentric theory. Euclid geometry Archimedes pulley Hellenistic Art: More realistic; less ideal than Hellenic art. Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!