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RUNNING STITCH A very short, even stitch used for fine seaming, tucking, mending, gathering, and other such delicate sewing. The stitches are small and usually permanent Method: Working from Right to Left, weave the point of the needle in and out of the fabric several times before pulling the thread through (as shown in the first picture). Keep stitches and the spaces between them small and even.

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BACKSTITCH One of the strongest and most versatile of the hand stitches, the backstitch serves to secure hand stitching and repair seams. Method: Bring needle and thread to the wrong side. Insert needle through all the fabric Layers (at point A/1) , take a stitch length Behind (at point B/2) and bring it up just at back point where thread emerges (at point C/3). Pull thread through. Types of Backstitch: HALF BACKSTITCH: Similar to Backstitch except that the Length of stitches & spaces between them are equal. It is not as strong as Backstitch. PRICK STITCH: It is a much more decorative backstitch than the even/ half backstitch. Seen from the top side, the stitches are very short, with long spaces between them. PICK STITCH: Any of the back stitches but made without catching underlayer of fabric whereas the underpart of the stitch becomes invisible. Primarily it is a decorative stitch.

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STEM STITCH Stem Stitch is a detail stitch that can be used to outline items or fill in areas. It is the reverse side of Backstitch. Method: Come up through the fabric at your starting point. Make a stitch approximately 1/4" long. Come up through the fabric at the midpoint of this stitch, making sure not to split the stitch with your needle. Pull the stitch flat. Make another stitch 1/4" long by going down 1/2" away from the end of the first stitch. Continue to make your stitches. Always come up in the same hole as the end of the previous stitch.

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HERRINGBONE STITCH It is a strong hemming stitch particularly well suited to a stitched – and – pinked hem edge. Method: Stitches are worked from Left to Right . With needle pointing left fasten thread from wrong side of hem and bring needle and thread through hem edge (at point A). Take a very small stitch in the garment fabric directly above the hem edge and approximately 6 – 10 mm right (at point B). Move back to left side (at point C) and finally crossing the previously made stitch in it’s opposite direction, insert the needle (at point D). Follow the same procedure as done at points BC to get the position DE. Continue the same procedure. (Refer first image)

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HEMMING These stitches are used to secure a hem to a garment. These stitches pass over the hem edge to the garment. Following are its types: SLIP HEMMING: A durable and almost invisible method suitable for a folded hem edge. Method: Stitches are worked from right to left. Fasten thread bringing needle and thread out through fold of hem. Opposite in the garment take a small stitch, in the hem edge, insert needle and slip through fold for about 6 mm. Continue alternating the stitches in the same way. SLANT HEMMING: Quickest, but least durable because so much thread is exposed and subject to abrasion. 3. VERTICAL HEMMING: A durable and stable method. Very little thread is exposed, reducing the risk of abrasion.

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CHAIN STITCH A continuous series of looped stitches that form a chain. It can be used decoratively. It is of following two types: CLOSED CHAIN STITCH Method: Work from right to left. Fasten thread and bring up to right side. For each stitch loop thread up and around; insert needle just behind where thread emerges and bring it up, over the looped thread a stitch length in front of that point. Pull thread through, to the left to form looped stitch. OPEN CHAIN STITCH Method: This stitch is worked on two parallel lines, rather than a single line as in chain stitch. Bring the thread out through ‘A’. Take the thread in through ‘B’ and bring the needle out through ‘C’ but don’t pull it out completely. Loop the thread around the needle, as you would for chain stitch, and pull out the needle. Continue with the action of looping pattern to give a ladder like appearance

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FEATHER STITCH Primarily decorative, feather stitch is made up of a series of stitches taken on alternate sides of a given line. Method: Mark the line, the stitching is to follow on right side of fabric. Fasten thread on underside of stitch line and bring up to the right side of the fabric (at point ‘a’). For first and each succeeding stitch, pass needle and thread diagonally across line to opposite side (from point ‘b’ to ‘c’). Holding thread in place and with needle pointing down and diagonally toward line, take a small stitch above thread, bringing point of needle out on the top of thread (from point ‘d’ to ‘e’). Draw on the stitch until thread under it covers slightly. Continue making stitches on opposite side of the line, keeping stitch length, spacing, & needle slant the same.

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CROSS STITCH Horizontal stitches, taken parallel to each other, whose floats cross in the centre to form ‘Xs’. Can be used decoratively or constructively, either in a series (as shown) or as a single cross stitch. Method: Make a row of small diagonal stitches spaced as far apart as they are long (see A). When the row finishes, reverse the direction of stitches, so that Xs can be formed. (see B)

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BLANKET STITCH Traditionally an embroidery stitch, the blanket stitch can also be used in garment construction, to cover the fabric edges decoratively. Method: Work from left to right, with the point of the needle and the edge of the work towards you. The edge of the fabric can be folded or left raw. Secure thread and bring out below edge. For the first and each succeeding stitch insert needle through fabric from right side and bring out at edge. Keeping thread from previous stitch under point of needle draw needle and thread through forming stitch over edge. Stitch size and spacing can be the same or varied.

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BUTTONHOLE STITCH A covering stitch used as a decorative finish and in making of hand – worked buttonholes. Method: Follow basic directions for Blanket stitch, 3mm deep and no space in between.

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TACKING STITCHES Hand tacking (or basting) is used to temporarily hold together two or more fabric layers during both, fitting and construction. Following are its types: DIAGONAL TACKING: Small stitches, taken parallel to each other, producing diagonal floats in between. Method: When making the stitches, needle points from right to left. Start from ‘2’, create a diagonal stitch from ‘2’ – ‘3’, then a straight stitch from ‘3’ – ‘4’ on the wrong side. Continue the same procedure. EVEN TACKING: Used for smooth fabrics & in areas that require close control, such as curved seams, seams with ease, and set – in sleeves. UNEVEN TACKING: Used for general tacking, for edges that require less Control during permanent stitching & for marking. SLIP TACKING: It is a temporary, uneven slipstitch that permits precise matching of plaids, or prints, etc. at seam lines. It is done from right side. Method: Crease and turn under one edge along its seam line of the corresponding garment piece matching the fabric design; pin. Working from right to left, take a stitch through the lower garment section, then take the next stitch through fold of upper edge. Continue the same way.

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5. CATCH STITCH: It is used for tacking together sections of lightweight garments. It is like the blind hemming stitch except that here, herringbone stitch is used instead of slip stitch. TACKS BAR TACK: It is a straight reinforcement tack used at such points of strain as the ends of a hand – worked buttonhole or the corners of a pocket. FRENCH TACK: It is made similarly to bar tack. It is used to link two separate garment sections, such as the bottom edge of a coat to the bottom edge of its lining, while still allowing a certain amount of independent movement to the two sections that are linked. Method: Take a small stitch through top of garment edge. Then another small stitch directly opposite in lining, leaving a 2 – 5 cm slack in the thread between stitches. Take similar stitches several times in the same place. Then work closely spaced blanket stitches over the threads. TAILOR’S TACK: These tacks are best confined as a general rule for markings such as fold or centre lines, etc.

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COUCH STITCH In embroidery, couching is a technique for attaching a length of thread to a base fabric by taking tiny stitches over it at regular intervals.

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FRENCH KNOT French knot is one of the easiest of all knots. This stitch can be used to do little flowers, or as a filling stitch to fill in small circles and centre of flowers. Many closely done french knots can give a ‘woolly’ appearance and can be used creatively. Method: Bring the needle out through A. Now, place the needle close to the fabric. Wrap the thread around it twice, as shown. Keep the longer end of the thread pulled with your fingers while putting the needle back in a point just close to A or even through A. Pull down the needle through the fabric. You will see your first french knot formed.

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BULLION KNOT This is an ‘elongated’ knot which can be used liberally to group together and make dense textures. For this stitch a Milliners needle is used. A milliners needle has the same thickness throughout its length, thus making the passing of the wound thread through the needle easy. Method: Bring the needle out through A and put the needle through B at a desired length. Now, bring the needle out through A again. Then, wind the thread around the needle as shown. The distance of wound thread should measure the same as the distance between A and B. Then, hold the wrapped thread with your fingers and pull the needle out with the other finger. Keep pulling the needle completely in an upward direction till the wraps lay on the fabric as shown The finished bullion stitch would look like this.

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FLY STITCH Also known as: Y stitch , Open loop stitch This is a very easy type of stitch to do and looks interesting. As the name suggests, it looks like a ‘Y’. Method: Bring the needle out from A and put it in through B. Then, bring it out through C, which lies between and below A and B. Pull the needle out from over the working thread. This creates a ‘V’ shape. Now, to create the ‘Y’ shape, you need to make a tail. So, put in the needle a little space right below C. When you are finished, the stand alone fly stitch would look like this.

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SATIN STITCH Satin stitch has a very easy procedure. Very often, a satin stitch is outlined using one of the straight stitches like, the split stitch, the outline stitch, back stitch, chain stitch, or any other similar stitches of your choice. Also, when doing satin stitch, we have to make sure the stitches are not pulled too tightly as it will distort the fabric. Keeping it too lose will sag the stitch. Method: Bring the needle out through A and put it in through B. So, that makes a stitch which covers a small area between the stitch lines. Now, bring the needle back through C, a point very close to A. Continue this action over the two stitch lines. Once finished, the area is filled as shown above. You will be spending as much thread on the reverse side as you do on the actual side of the fabric.

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SHADOW STITCH Shadow Work is a type of embroidery worked on semi-sheer or sheer fabric, with the bulk of the embroidery on the back of the design so that the color of the thread – or rather, a shadow of the color – shows through on the front of the fabric between two solid-colored outlines. The stitch used in shadow work embroidery is essentially backstitch, but it is worked between two lines, alternating back and forth between the two lines with each stitch. On the back of the fabric, the resulting closely worked herringbone stitch forms a layer of criss-crossing threads that shows through on the front of the fabric with just a hint of color between the backstitch outlines.

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OVERCAST STITCH This is a customary hand stitch for finishing the raw edges of fabric to prevent them from fraying. Method: Work from either direction, take diagonal stitches over the edge (as shown in the image), spacing them at even distance apart at uniform depth.

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OVERHAND STITCH These tiny, stitches are used to topsew two finished edges. Method: Insert needle diagonally from the back edge through to the front edge, picking up only one or two threads each time. The needle is inserted directly behind thread from previous stitch and is brought out a stitch length away. Keep the stitches uniform in their size and spacing.

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PADDING STITCHES Padding Stitches are used, primarily in tailoring, to attach interfacing to the outer fabric. It has following types: CHEVRON PADDING STITCHES: These are formed by making each row of stitches in the opposite direction from the preceding one. Work from top to bottom or bottom to top on one row, then, without turning fabric, work next row in opposite direction. PARALLEL PADDING STITCHES: These stitches are made the same way as chevron padding stitches except that all rows are worked in the same direction.

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Presented by Lasitsyna Dana Thank you for your attention!

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