Political parties in USA (Політичні партії в США)
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Throughout most of its history, American politics have been dominated by a two-party system. However, the United States Constitution has always been silent on the issue of political parties; at the time it was signed in 1787, there were no parties in the nation. Indeed, no nation in the world had voter-based political parties. The need to win popular support in a republic led to the American invention of political parties in the 1790s. Political scientists and historians have divided the development of America's two-party system into five eras. The modern two-party system consists of theDemocratic Party and the Republican Party. In general, since the 1930s the Democratic Party positions itself left-of-center in American politics while the Republican Party positions itself as right-of-center. Several third parties also operate in the United States, and from time to time elect someone to local office.
Modern U.S. political party system The modern political party system in the United States is a two-party system dominated by the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. These two parties have won every United States presidential election since 1852 and have controlled the United States Congress since at least 1856.
Democratic Party The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States along with the Republican Party. The party supports asocial liberal, social democratic and progressive platform and its Congressional caucus is composed of progressives, liberals, centrists, andleft-libertarians. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous operation in the United States and is one of the oldest political parties in the world. Current President of the United States Barack Obama is the 15th Democrat to hold that office. As of the 112th Congress following the 2010 elections, the Democratic Party currently holds a minority of seats in the House of Representatives and a majority of seats in the Senate, as well as a minority of state governorships and control of a minority of state legislatures.
Republican Party The Republican Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854, it dominated politics nationally for most of the period 1860-1932. 18 presidents have been Republicans. The most recent Republican president was George W Bush. Currently the party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S. political spectrum. American conservatism of the Republican Party is not wholly based upon rejection of the political ideology of liberalism, as many principles of American conservatism are based upon classical liberalism. Rather the Republican Party's conservatism is largely based upon its support of classical principles against the modern liberalism of theDemocratic Party that is considered American liberalism in contemporary American political discourse. In the 112th Congress, elected in 2010, the Republican Party holds a majority of seats in the House of Representatives and a minority of seats in theSenate. The party currently holds the majority of governorships as well as the majority of state legislatures.
Major third parties Libertarian Party The Libertarian Party was founded on December 11, 1971. It is one of the largest continuing third parties in the United States, claiming more than 200,000 registered voters and more than 600 people in public office, including mayors, county executives, county-council members, school-board members, and other local officials. It has more people in office than all other minor parties combined. The political platform of the Libertarian Party reflects that group's particular brand of libertarianism, favoring minimally regulated, laissez-faire markets, strong civil liberties, minimally regulatedmigration across borders, and non-interventionism in foreign policy that respects freedom of trade and travel to all foreign countries. The 2012 Libertarian Party nominee for United States President is former New Mexico governor, Gary Johnson.
Constitution Party The Constitution Party is a conservative United States political party. It was founded as the U.S. Taxpayers Party in 1992. The party's official name was changed to the Constitution Party in 1999; however, some state affiliate parties are known under different names. According to ballot access expert Richard Winger, the editor of Ballot Access News, who periodically compiles and analyzes voter registration statistics as reported by state voter agencies, it ranks third nationally amongst all United States political parties in registered voters, with 438,222 registered members as of October 2008. This makes it currently the largest third party in the United States. The Constitution Party advocates a platform that they believe reflects the Founding Fathers' original intent of the U.S. Constitution, principles found in the U.S. Declaration of Independence, and morals taken from the Bible. In 2006, Rick Jore of Montana became the first Constitution Party candidate elected to a state-level office, though the Constitution Party of Montana had disaffiliated itself from the national party a short time before the election. The Constitution Party's 2012 presidential nominee is Virgil Goode.
Green Party of the United States The Green Party of the United States (GPUS) is a national American political party founded in 1991 as a voluntary association of state green parties. With its founding, the Green Party of the United States became the primary national Green organization in the United States, eclipsing theGreens/Green Party USA, which emphasized non-electoral movement building. The Association of State Green Parties (ASGP), a forerunner organization, first gained widespread public attention during Ralph Nader's United States presidential campaigns in 1996 and 2000.