Etymology of the English word - stock
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Etymology of the English Word-stock Etymology (Gr. etymon “truth” + Gr. logos “learning”) is a branch of linguistics that studies the origin and history of words tracing them to their earliest determinable source.
Definitions A native word is a word which belongs to the original English word stock, as known from the earliest available manuscripts of the Old English period. A borrowed word (a borrowing, or a loan word) is a word taken over from another language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language.
Words of Native Origin Words of the Indo-European origin (IE) Words of common Germanic origin English words proper
Words of the Indo-European origin Family relations: father, mother, brother, son, daughter Parts of the human body: foot, nose, lip, heart, tooth Animals and plants: cow, swine, goose, tree, birch, corn The most important objects and phenomena of nature: sun, moon, star, wind, water, wood, hill, stone Adjectives: hard, quick, slow, red, white, new Numerals from 1 to 100: one, two, twenty, eighty Pronouns – personal, except they (Sc.): I, you, he; demonstrative : that; interrogative: who Some of the most frequent verbs: bear, do, be, sit, stand
Words of common Germanic origin Nouns denoting parts of the human body: head, arm, finger Periods of time: summer, winter, time, week Natural phenomena: storm, rain, flood, ice, ground, sea, earth Artefacts and materials: bridge, house, shop, room, coal, iron, lead, cloth Animals, plants and birds: sheep, horse, fox, crow, oak, grass Adjectives denoting colours, size and other properties: broad, dead, deaf, deep, grey, blue Verbs: see, hear, speak, tell, say, make, give
Historical causes of borrowing The Roman invasion (1st c. B.C.), The introduction of Christianity (7th c. A.D.), The Danish conquests (11th – 13th c. A.D.), The Norman conquest (1066 A.D.), The Renaissance period (14th – 16th c. A.D.), Direct linguistic contacts and political, economical and cultural relationship with other nations.
The Etymology of Borrowed Words Celtic: 5th – 6th A. D. Latin: 1st layer: 1st c. B. C. 2nd layer: 7th c. A. D. (the introduction of Christianity) 3rd layer: 14th – 16th c. (the Renaissance period) Scandinavian: 8th – 11th c. A. D. French: Norman borrowings: 11th – 13th A. D. Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance period Greek: the Renaissance period Italian: the Renaissance period and later Spanish: the Renaissance period and later Russian: the Renaissance period and later German, Indian and other languages
Celtic borrowings Place names: Avon, Exe, Esk, Usk, Ux (Celtic “river”, “water”); London (Llyn “river”+ dun “a fortified hill”) - “a fortress on the hill over the river” cradle, cross, iron, flannel, tweed, lake (C. loch)
The earliest Latin borrowings (1st c. A.D.) words denoting things connected with war, trade, building and domestic life: pound, inch, cup, kitchen, pepper, butter, cheese, milk, wine, cherry
Latin words borrowed into English through the Christianization of England (7th c. A.D.) persons, objects and ideas associated with church and religious rituals: priest, bishop, monk, nun, candle, temple, angel words connected with learning: grammar, school, scholar, decline, master, magister
Latin borrowings of the Renaissance period (14th – 16th c. A.D.) abstract words: major, minor, filial, moderate, intelligent, permanent, to elect, to create.
Scandinavian borrowings (8th - 11th c. A.D.) Verbs: call, take, cast, die, want Nouns: law, egg, husband (Sc. hūs + bōndi “inhabitant of the house”), window (Sc. vindauga “the eye of the wind”) Adjectives: ill, loose, low, weak Pronouns and pronominal forms: they, their, them, same, both, though.
Scandinavian borrowings (place names) Derby, Tremsby (-by: Sc. “village, town”); Zinthorp, Altharp (-thorp: Sc. “village”); Eastoft, Nortoft (-toft: Sc. “a plot of land covered with grass”); Troutbeck (-beck: Sc. “brook”); Inverness (-ness: Sc. “cape”); Applethwait, Crossthwait (-thwait: Sc. “forest glade”)
Norman borrowings (11th – 13th c. A.D.) Government and administration: state, country, government, parliament, prince, baron Legal terms: court, judge, justice, crime, prison, jury Religious terms: saint, sermon (проповедь), prayer, parish (приход), chapel Military terms: army, war, soldier, officer, battle, enemy Educational terms: pupil, lesson, library, science, pen, pencil Artistic and literary terms: image, character, figure, volume, design Terms of everyday life: chair, table, plate, saucer, dinner, supper, breakfast
Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance period and later regime, routine, police, machine, ballet, matinée, scene, technique, bourgeois, etc.
The Renaissance period borrowings (14th – 16th c. A.D.) Italian: piano, violin, opera, alarm, colonel Spanish: potato, tomato, cargo, banana, cocoa. Greek: direct (e.g. atom, cycle, ethics, esthete), or through Latin (datum, status, phenomenon, phenomenon, philosophy, method, music).
Other borrowings Japanese: karate, judo, hara-kiri, kimono, tycoon; Arabic: algebra, algorithm, fakir, giraffe, sultan Turkish: yogurt, kiosk, tulip Persian: caravan, shawl, bazaar, sherbet Eskimo: kayak, igloo, anorak Amerindian languages: toboggan, wigwam, opossum Russian: bistro, tsar, balalaika, tundra, sputnik
Classification of borrowings according to the aspect which is borrowed Borrowings proper Translation borrowings (translation loans) Semantic borrowings
Classification of borrowings according to the aspect which is borrowed Translation borrowings (translation loans) are words and expressions formed from the material already existing in the English language but according to patterns taken from another language, by way of literal morpheme-for-morpheme translation. E. g. masterpiece < Germ. Meisterstück; Wonder child < Germ. Wunderkind; wall newspaper < Rus. стенная газета; collective farm < Rus. колхоз.
Classification of borrowings according to the aspect which is borrowed Semantic borrowing is understood as the development in an English word of a new meaning under the influence of a related word in another language. E. g. Eng. pioneer ‘explorer’, ‘one who is among the first in new fields of activity’:: Rus. пионер ‘a member of the Young Pioneers’ Organization’. reaction, deviation, bureau
International words “Words of identical origin that occur in several languages as a result of simultaneous or successive borrowings from one ultimate source” (I. A. Arnold, p. 260).
International words Words denoting science and technological advances: sputnik, television, antenna, bionics, gene, cybernetics Political terms: politics, democracy, communism, revolution Fruits and foodstuffs imported from exotic countries: coffee, chocolate, grapefruit Names of sciences: philosophy, mathematics, physics, chemistry Terms of art: music, theatre, drama, tragedy The sports terms: football, baseball, cricket, golf.