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By Karina Ocheretyana

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“Human Immunodeficiency Virus” A unique type of virus (a retrovirus) Invades the helper T cells (CD4 cells) in the body of the host (defense mechanism of a person) Threatening a global epidemic. Preventable, managable but not curable.

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“Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome” HIV is the virus that causes AIDS Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection due to markedly reduced helper T cells. Patients have a very weak immune system (defense mechanism) Patients predisposed to multiple opportunistic infections leading to death.

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Opportunistic infections and malignancies that rarely occur in the absence of severe immunodeficiency (eg, Pneumocystis pneumonia, central nervous system lymphoma). Persons with positive HIV serology who have ever had a CD4 lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mcL or a CD4 lymphocyte percentage below 14% are considered to have AIDS.

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Blood products Semen Vaginal fluids

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Sharing Needles Without sterilization Increases the chances of contracting HIV Unsterilized blades

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Unprotected Intercourse Oral Anal

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Before Birth During Birth

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Abstinence Protected Sex Sterile needles New shaving/cutting blades

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It is the most effective method of not acquiring HIV/AIDS. Refraining from unprotected sex: oral, anal, or vaginal. Refraining from intravenous drug use

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Use condoms every time you have sex Always use latex or polyurethane condom (not a natural skin condom) Always use a latex barrier during oral sex

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Make sure the package is not expired Make sure to check the package for damages Do not open the package with your teeth for risk of tearing Never use the condom more than once Use water-based rather than oil-based condoms

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Source: UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update, December 2004. Total = 39.4 million Sub-Saharan Africa South/South-East Asia Oceania Caribbean North Africa/Middle East Western Europe North America East Asia Eurasia Latin America < 42%

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UNAIDS Outcome Framework 2009–2011: nine priority areas We can reduce sexual transmission of HIV. We can prevent mothers from dying and babies from becoming infected with HIV. We can ensure that people living with HIV receive treatment. We can prevent people living with HIV from dying of tuberculosis. We can protect drug users from becoming infected with HIV. We can remove punitive laws, policies, practices, stigma and discrimination that block effective responses to AIDS. We can stop violence against women and girls. We can empower young people to protect themselves from HIV. We can enhance social protection for people affected by HIV.

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