Еnvironmental issuesЗавантажити презентацію
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Life is inextricably linked to the natural environment. In the early stages of its formation the person using the products of nature, do not cause significant damage to natural resources. But with the increasing practice associated with the invention of tools, its impact on nature is steadily growing. In the last decade of the twentieth century due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological progress, an unprecedented expansion of the sphere of material production, he became especially significant and large-scale.
Steadily increasing population of our planet requires a corresponding increase in production and manufacturing of vital resources for their stay. The consequences of human impact on the environment as sad and disturbing: broken communities and natural landscapes, polluted atmosphere, marine water and fresh water, crumbling soil cover, reduced forest resources and the number of plant and animal species, chemical compounds that circulate in the biosphere, harm health 'yu man and all living things.
In Ukraine, the environmental crisis has deepened after the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. These circumstances and the difficult socio-economic conditions have led to a sharp deterioration of public health and reducing its reproduction. Now in Ukraine more people die than are born. The decision of the Parliament of 1992 the entire territory of the country declared a zone of ecological disaster. Therefore, in dealing with the nature of humanity is faced with serious and complex problems. It is clear that the human impact on nature is now far exceeds the biosphere's ability to self-regulate and generally puts at risk the possibility of its existence as a system.
The term "ecology" (from the Greek "oikos" - housing, storage) introduced the science of German biologist Haeckel in 1866. In a narrow sense - the science of the interactions of living organisms with each other and with the environment. Now the term "ecology" is often understood as the whole complex of problems related to environmental protection. Ecology as a science is the basis for the development of specific conservation measures.
In large cities due to increasing air pollution is steadily increasing number of patients with chronic bronchitis, allergies, malignant disease of the bronchi and lungs. The World Health Organization considers pollution as a significant threat to human life and encourages taking the most serious measures for its protection.
The natural pollutants are cosmic dust, sand deserts, ash and gases active volcanoes, ash from forest and grassland fires, fine particles by weathering of soil and rocks of marine origin dust, plant pollen, microorganisms. Due to the frequency of they do not cause significant harm to life on the planet.
Too dangerous radioactive pollution. Getting into the atmosphere from nuclear tests or accidents at nuclear power plants, radioactive particles are carried by air currents over long distances and contaminate the environment.
The rapid pace of industrial development, the emergence of new slurry industries, such as pulp and paper, petrochemical accompanied by an increase in water use. The huge amount of water needed for cooling thermal power units, as well as nuclear power plants that consume it in 1.5-2 times higher than thermal. To better ensure human food are increasingly used irrigation agriculture.
One reason for the shortage of fresh water is reduced rivers, which reduces groundwater reserves and increase surface runoff. Consequently, during rain and snow melt rivers are flowing, and in dry periods in summer shallow. These processes are affected by human activities - forest felling of large areas, plowing of floodplains, inning ..