Variants of English in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and Australia
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Introduction We understand the variant of literary language as a territorial version of the unified norm of the literary language. The variant of the national language is the set of territorially limited variant of the literary language and territorial dialects operating within its area.
The English language is the most widely-spread language in the world. It is the official language of Great Britain, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and some countries of Africa. Also English is one of two official languages of Ireland, Canada and Malta, and it is used by population of some states of Asia (India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Thailand, South Korea, Philippines, etc.).
Australian English Australian English appeared in the result of colonization of Australia by the English people in the 18th century. About third of population of Australia speaks on a "wide", strongly pronounced dialect (Broad Australian), hardly more than half of population uses «standard» Australian (General Australian), and approximately the tenth part speaks on «graceful» Australian (Cultivated Australian).
Spelling The Australian English spelling almost completely corresponds to the British English one. They use such variants of spelling, as -re (centre), -our (harbour), -ll- (travelling), -ise/ize (recognise/recognize). But few words are spelled in the American variant, for example: program, labor, etc.
Grammar There are some differences in the category of number: Data is ready for processing. The verb shall is used only in imperative and interrogative forms: Shall we go? You shall do that! The verb would has replaced should: What for would I do that? The words whilst, amongst are still used. The both forms are used in the same meaning: around / round (=approximately) disinterested / uninterested flammable / inflammable
Phonetics The ways of development of the Australian English phonetics were determined by: Cockney and Irish English. The Australian pronunciation can be illustrated by these phrases: - Knife a samich? (Can I have a sandwich?) - I’ll gechawun inn a sec. (I’ll get you one in a sec.) - Emma chisit? (How much is it?) - Attlebee aitninee. (That’ll be eight ninety.)
Lexis In Australian English there are its own idioms and words: Down under (Australia and New Zealand) sheila (a woman) bloke (a man) fair dinkum (something original) china plate (a good friend) shark (Noah's ark) doco (documentation) footie (football) smoko (a smoke break) aussie (Australians) shonky (illegal)