Variants of English in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and AustraliaЗавантажити презентацію
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Introduction We understand the variant of literary language as a territorial version of the unified norm of the literary language. The variant of the national language is the set of territorially limited variant of the literary language and territorial dialects operating within its area.
The English language is the most widely-spread language in the world. It is the official language of Great Britain, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and some countries of Africa. Also English is one of two official languages of Ireland, Canada and Malta, and it is used by population of some states of Asia (India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Thailand, South Korea, Philippines, etc.).
Australian English Australian English appeared in the result of colonization of Australia by the English people in the 18th century. About third of population of Australia speaks on a "wide", strongly pronounced dialect (Broad Australian), hardly more than half of population uses «standard» Australian (General Australian), and approximately the tenth part speaks on «graceful» Australian (Cultivated Australian).
Spelling The Australian English spelling almost completely corresponds to the British English one. They use such variants of spelling, as -re (centre), -our (harbour), -ll- (travelling), -ise/ize (recognise/recognize). But few words are spelled in the American variant, for example: program, labor, etc.
Grammar There are some differences in the category of number: Data is ready for processing. The verb shall is used only in imperative and interrogative forms: Shall we go? You shall do that! The verb would has replaced should: What for would I do that? The words whilst, amongst are still used. The both forms are used in the same meaning: around / round (=approximately) disinterested / uninterested flammable / inflammable
Phonetics The ways of development of the Australian English phonetics were determined by: Cockney and Irish English. The Australian pronunciation can be illustrated by these phrases: - Knife a samich? (Can I have a sandwich?) - I’ll gechawun inn a sec. (I’ll get you one in a sec.) - Emma chisit? (How much is it?) - Attlebee aitninee. (That’ll be eight ninety.)
Lexis In Australian English there are its own idioms and words: Down under (Australia and New Zealand) sheila (a woman) bloke (a man) fair dinkum (something original) china plate (a good friend) shark (Noah's ark) doco (documentation) footie (football) smoko (a smoke break) aussie (Australians) shonky (illegal)
Lexis past the black stump (a not populated, wild district without any signs of civilization) shark biscuits (a surfer-beginner) He wouldn't shout if a shark bit him (about a very stingy person) boomerang (something that is necessarily to return) bush telegraph (Rus cарафанное радио) station (a cattle-breeding farm) bush (forest, countryside) to tie up (to tie an animal to a tree) In Australia they call an American seppo, an Englishman – pommy, pommie or pom.
Northern Ireland English English pronunciation standards in Northern Ireland and in the Republic of Eire are different. Nowadays native speakers of Irish are few in number and are соnfined to rural areas еvеn though Irish is the official language of Ireland and is taught in schools. English here is not homogeneous. Areas of the far north are heavily Scots-influenced.
Northern Ireland English pronunciation [i]: pit [pit], fir [fir], fern [firn], fur [fir]; [i:]: bee [bi:], beer [bi:r], seedy ['si:di:], meet [mi:t], [е]: pet [pet], bed [bed]; [з]: bay [bз], bear [bзr], plate [plзt], weight [wзt]; [а]: pat [pat], bard [bard], hat [hat], [υ]: put [pυt], boot [bυt], рооr [pυr]; [σ]: boat [bσt], board [bσrd], pole [pσl], kпows [nσz], пose [nσz], роur [рσr], [ai]: buу [bai], tide [taid]; [aυ]: bout [baυt]; [ɔi]: bоу [bɔi].
In words like bау, say the vowel is а monophthong [з], preconsonantally it may be а diphthong of the type [зə - iə]: gate [giət]; [i], [υ] are fairly central; [ɔ:] and [σ] contrast only before [р, t, k]; [ai], [aυ] are very variable; realization of [ɑ:] may vary considerably.  is mainly clear; intervocalic [t] is often а voiced flap [d]: city ['sidi:] between vowels [ð] may be lost: mother ['mɔ:ər] [h] is present.
Irish English English in Ireland has a very long history. There is no common opinion concerning the status of Irish English. Since the 19th century Irish English has been taking a leading position in the language community of Ireland.
Some peculiarities of tenses in Irish English: a repeated continuous action: There bees a fret o’people at the fairs o’Boyle. a present repeated continuous action: They do be fightin’ among other. exact present with a repeated aspect: He does come when he hears the noise. general truth: It does rain a lot in winter.
Did you ever notice the way people do be when they're talkin'? (Have you noticed the way people are when they're talking?) He does come when he hears the noise. (He always comes when he hears the noise.) Did you ever hear the story of Daddy Crowe? (Have you ever heard the story of Daddy Crowe?) She asked him was he going with anyone. (She asked him if he was going with anyone.) “Boys, excuse us,” says they. (“Boys, excuse us,” they say.
I was thinking it might be that redheaded bastard from the All Souls Club. (I thought it might be that redheaded bastard from the All Souls Club.) I’m after falling over that about ten times this morning. (I have fallen over that about ten times this morning.) Do you know Conor? - Know him, is it? Why wouldn't I? Is it me to whip my own little pony? (Shall I whip my own little pony?) Do you remember the rest? - What you said, is it? ”Ta an leabhar agam” which literally means : “Is the book at me” (I have the book). me feet (my feet).