The evaluation system in the USAЗавантажити презентацію
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In the US, typically used range from five letter designations: «A», «B», «C», «D» and «F». «A» - the highest rating, «F» (from the English. Failure) - the lower, meaning unsatisfactory result. These symbols correspond to the first letters of the Latin alphabet in alphabetical order of the same, except for the letter «E».
Such a system was introduced in 1897, Mount Holyoke College (Eng.) Russian. (Massachusetts) and originally contained the first five letters of the alphabet from A to E. A year later, the college has replaced the «E» to «F»
The use of school symbols E and F as unsatisfactory ratings depends on the time and geography. During the Second World War, some states began to use assessment E, while most states have continued to be used for these purposes assessment F, which existed on the so-called System Pass / Fail (refer to P and F). In recent years, some schools as the designation of failure in delivery offsets used estimate N, to show that "no points". Another letter used to indicate unsatisfactory evaluation is U, which is the abbreviation for "unsatisfactory" (unsatisfactory).
Quality index AF is usually classified according to the following five-point scale: • A = 4,0 • B = 3,0 • C = 2,0 • D = 1,0 • F = 0,0 Widely used versions extension scale by + and - signs are commonly used. They are usually considered as x + 0,3, respectively, and x-0,3. For example, since B = 3,0, then B + = 3,3 and B- = 2,7. Some educational institutions use a single mid-point between the units of the scale. They consider evaluation A- and B + identical. In such cases, the evaluation of AB replaces the option A- / B + and is counted as 3.5
Evaluation of A + - innovation in American education. A smaller part of the institutions that use it, evaluate it as 4.3 or 4.5, but many estimate of A + as 4.0, because they believe that the 4.0 scale can not go higher than 4.0. Sometimes falls F-, believing that everything below D, by definition fail. Estimated percentage A 90% -100% B 80% -89% C 70% -79% D 65% -69% F and below 64%
In some states, such as Indiana, Louisiana, Nebraska, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Illinois and Virginia, the following scale: Estimated percentage A 93-100 B 85-92 C 77-84 D 70-76 F 0-69 Are also extended evaluation (with the signs "+" and "-"). Most 100-point scale letter grade is located in the numerical value close to 5. "
Also there is a dispute about the fact that colleges should pay attention to the scores obtained in the previous middle and high schools, because one score in any part of the country can not be equivalent to the same evaluation itself in another part of the country. In other words, the evaluation "A" may be 90-100, and elsewhere have 94-100 points. In middle and high schools that do not use a system based on points, the average score is calculated as the average of all estimates. In colleges and universities that use discrete assessment, the average score is calculated taking into account the significance of any assessment during the course, when the grade is by dividing the mean values of the various types of evaluations.