ETYMOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY
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Words of Native Origin Terms of kinship: father: German - Vater, Greek - pater, Latin -pater; mother: German - Mutter, Russian - мать, Latin - mater, Greek –meter; brother: German - Bruder, Russian - брат, Latin –frater.
auxiliary and modal verbs (shall, will, can, may, must), most verbs of the strong conjugation, denoting common actions (to do, to make, to go, to come, to see, to hear, to eat, to keep, to know, to meet, etc.), pronouns (personal, except they, which is of Scandinavian origin, and demonstrative), the numerals from one to a hundred, prepositions (in, on, out, under) and conjunctions (and, but, till, as, etc.). The native stock includes
Nouns of Anglo-Saxon origin parts of the body (hand, head, arm, back, body, breast, bosom, chin, ear, elbow, eye, finger, fist, foot, heart, heel, knee, neck, nose, shoulder, throat); kinship terms (father, mother, brother, son, daughter, boy, girl, man, woman, lady, lord, child, widow); names of natural phenomena and heavenly bodies (snow, rain, wind, sun, moon, star); names of animals, birds, fish, insects (bat, bee, bug, bull, calf, cat, chicken, cock, cow, crow, deer, dog, donkey, drake, duck, fox, goal, goose, hen, horse, mouse, ox, pig, raven, sheep, sparrow, swan, swine, wolf);
Nouns of Anglo-Saxon origin names of plants and their fruit (barley, berry, birch, daisy, garlic, grass, lime, nut, oak, oats, rye, walnut, wheat, willow); names of things of everyday life, instruments, clothes, buildings (barn, bench, boat, box, broom, bucket, cloth, gate, glove, hammer, hat, jar, knife, ladder, lock, nail, needle, pan, plough, rail, rake, roof, room, shed, shelter, spade, spoon, stool, thread, yard); some place names (acre, cliff land, hill, meadow, marsh); seasons of the year (with the exception of autumn, which is a French borrowing); Sea-going vessels (boat, ship).
The Foreign Element in the English Vocabulary The term borrowing is used in linguistics to denote not only the process of adopting words from other languages but also the result of this process, the language material itself, i.e. words, word-building affixes (e. g. -able, -ment, -ity, etc.) and word-groups (e. g. vis- à -vis, tête- à -tête).
The Celtic Element in the English Vocabulary Down (пагорб), dun (темно-сірий колір), bin (засік), bald (лисий), bog (болото), doe (самка оленя), gull (чайка), loop (петля), peal (хмиз), penguin (пінгвін), tall (високий), twig (гілка). Brat (грубий плащ), brock (бобер), coble (рибальський човен), crock (глечик). Bard, brogue (грубий черевик), claymore, plaid, pontoon (понтон), shamrock (трилисник) Aileen, Cathleen, Coleen, Doreen, Mono, Sheila and Alan, Brian, Donald, Roy.
Greek Borrowings medicine: adenoids, pediatrics, psychiatry, psychoanalysis; literature and art: poem, poetry, drama, tragedy, comedy, epilogue episode, epos, elegy, ode, prologue, rhythm, etc.; linguistics: synonym, antonym, homonym, metaphor, hyperbole, iiliom; political life: democracy; philosophy: basis, category; mathematics: hypotenuse; physics: dynamo, hydraulic, pneumatic, thermostat.
French loans terms relating to military matters; law terms; cookery terms; political life; literary terms; religious terms; culture and art terms; architecture terms; names of titles and professions; names of plants; names of relatives; words related to trade; words related to royal court; words related to fashion and luxury items; words denoting things which make our life pleasant
French affixes prefixes dis-, en- (disappoint, encircle) suffixes -ance, -ence, -merit, -ess, -et, -age (entrance, experience, agreement, princess, cabinet, courage)
Phonetic peculiarities of French loans keeping the accent on the last syllable: finance [fai'næns], supreme [sju:'pri:m], etc.; ch is pronounced as [∫]: chandelier, charade, chic, machine; g before e and і is pronounced as [ʒ]: massage, prestige, regime, rouge; ou is pronounced as [u:]: coup, soup, rouge
Italian Borrowings geological terms; political terms; architecture terms; art terms; military words; words of everyday life and use; musical instruments; different voices; musical pieces; various other terms associated with music
Spanish Borrowings trade terms: cargo, embargo; military terms: armada; names of dances and musical instruments: tango, rumba, guitar; names of vegetables and fruit: apricot, banana, chilli, cocoa, potato, tobacco, tomato; words related to cookery: barbeque, cafeteria, chocolate, sherry, vinilla; names of insects: cockroach, mosquito; some other words: cannibal, cigar, cocaine, negro, siesta, etc.
German Borrowings geological names and the names of metals and minerals (iceberg, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, zink, quartz, wolfram); concepts of philosophy, political economy, medicine and psychoanalysis (determinism, intuition, transcendental, dialectics, homeopathy, inferiority complex); words of everyday use (kindergarten, poodle, plunder, rucksack, sauerkraut, schnitzel, waltz).
Holland borrowings nautical terms: freight, skipper, pump, keel, dock, reef, deck, leak, etc. Slavonic borrowings names of animals and fish (mammoth, sable, beluga, morse), measures of length and weight (archin, sagene, versl, pood), names of money (copeck/kopeck, ruble/rouble), musical instruments (balalaika), vehicles (droshky, tarantass, troika), natural zones (taiga, tundra, steppe), social status of people (czar/tsar, tsarevich, Boyar, muzhik), administrative division of the country (uezd/uyezd, volost, Duma, zemsto), beverages (vodka, kvass/quass)
Various other borrowings Hebrew: amen, manna, messiah, Sabbath, satan. Arabian: admiral, albatross, alcohol, algebra, aliksir, amber, azimuth, cipher, emir, harem, hashish, islam, khalifa, lemon, mohair, moslem, safari, sherbet, sofa, zenith. Loanwords from various Indian languages: bungalow, cashmere, cot, ginger, jungle khaki,, mango, nirvana, orange, pajamas, shampoo, sugar, yoga. African: bajbab, chimpanzee, gnu, gorilla, guinea. Australian: boomerang, kangaroo. Chinese: kaolin, ketchup, lea, typhoon. Egyptian: pyramid. Japanese: bonsai, geisha, hara-kiri, judo, kimono, riksha, samurai. Turkish: bey, caftan, coffee, horde. Portuguese: banana, Madeira, port, verandah, cobra (they came through French, Spanish or Dutch).