"Adjectives in English"
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Degrees of Comparison There are three degrees: Basic Comparative Superlative high higher highest
One-syllable Adjectives Usually, the ending er/est is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example: fast - faster strong - stronger tall - tallest young - youngest When an adjective ends in a silent e, the silent e is dropped before the ending er/est is added. e.g.: brave - braver - bravest close - closer - closest late - later - latest
When an adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i before the ending er/est is added. e.g.: dry - drier-driest; easy - easier-easiest When an adjective ends in a CVC and the last consonant is other than w, x or y or a double vowel - we double the final consonant before adding er/est is added. e.g.: big - bigger-biggest (hot - hotter sad - saddest but: e.g.: loud - louder; neat - neater; soon - sooner
Two and more syllable adjectives Adjectives of 2 or more syllables (unless it ends with r or y), we make superior by using: the most / the least adjective noun. This book is the most / the least interesting book I have ever read.
Two and more syllable adjectives Adjectives of 2 or more syllables (unless it ends with r or y), we compare by using: noun verb more / less ____ than noun. This book is more interesting than that book. My ad is less convincing than your ad.
Suffixation -ful having… useful giving… helpful -less without fearless -ly having the qualities of cowardly -like ‘’ childlike -y like… creamy covered with… hairy -ish belonging to Turkish having the character foolish -ian in the tradition of Darwinian
Other adjective suffixes: -able/-ible = worthy/able: readable/edible -ish = somewhat youngish -ed = having balconied
Adjective suffixes meaning “having the characteristics of…/ peculiar to…/ full of ….” -al criminal (also –ial editorial and –ical musical -ic heroic -ive attractive (also – ative affirmative and -itive sensitive -ous virtuous (also –eous courteous and –ious vivacious
Suffixation NOTE! -ic vs. -ical (difference in meaning) an economic miracle ( in the economy) the car is economical to run ( money-saving) a historic building (with a history) historical research (pertaining to history)
Adjectives as Nouns = Substantivized Adjectives Fully substantivized – have all characteristics of a noun a native - the natives, a Russian - the Russians, a German - the Germans. Partially substantivized – are used as nouns only to show a group, many the rich, the unemployed, the good, the evil, the beau tiful, the English.